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2. Climate change
Background
There has been a wide discussion on the definition of climate change, initially it was defined as a cause of environmental degradation, and progressively it has been discussed as a development, migration and security issue [1]. For this paper climate change will be defined as any changes in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity [2], an official definition implemented by the intergovernmental panel on climate change IPCC. Since the 1950s alarms of climate change have been triggered, several of the predicted modifications in the climate system are unprecedented over millennia. The ocean and the atmosphere have heated up, snow and ice have depleted followed by the increase of greenhouse gases concentrations. The average combined temperature of land and ocean surface show a heating trends of 0, 85 [0.65 to 1.06] °C during 1880 to 2012; With a total increase of surface warming in the entire globe of during the same time period of 0.78 [0.72 to 0.85] °C this changes will diminish the number of cold days and nights and increase warm nights and days all over the planet. The frequency of heat waves would increase in Asia, Australia and parts of Europe. Some areas will experience a rise in the amount of heavy precipitations [2,3,9]. The ocean warmed by 0.11 [0.09 to 0.13] °C every ten years over the period of 1971 to 2010, modifying the characteristics of evaporation and precipitation over the ocean, areas with high levels of salinity where evaporation dominates have become more saline, and regions with low levels of salinity where precipitation dominates become fresher. The average rate of sea rise all over the world was 1.7 [1.5 to 1.9] mm yr–1 from 1901 to 2...

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