Construct validity revises if you operationalized well the ideas of cause and effect when there is a causal relationship in the study. Internal validity is use to determine if the relationship is causal when you can make a claim that the program or treatment in the study caused the outcomes of the study. Conclusion validity is use to determine if there is a relationship between the cause and effect. All four types of validity are important in r... ... middle of paper ... ...in research is valuable and needed. Researchers must dedicate time and effort in understanding the key concepts of research to have reliability and validity.
Last but not the least, the examination of how theory research and practice interact within the context and potentially is indeed interesting and helpful. This is a training of systematically understanding researches thereby gaining some ideas of how a good research should be structured and kept consistent. With regards to the limitation of space, the discussions are surely not sufficient enough to get clear every points. For an example, the details of how to perform the suggested mixed-methods way of research. In future, efforts should be made by me to provide better theory-grounded profound arguments.
Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis Writing the review Developing a coherent essay Conclusion The author has outlined the qualities of a well-planned effective literature review. The main functions are to provide what is currently known about the research topic, with the gathering of data be it statistics or qualitative data, a context in the conception and implementation of the research by critical evaluation of the data gathered. Finding gaps in the research already done and comparatively analyse the different sources. It should be noted that the review has to be an analysis of the research done and not be just a collection of paragraphs with references as this may be an ineffective way to initiate a research topic.
Historiographical essays implement mainly secondary sources of like concentrations to stake new claims, reinforce classic ideas and to negate inaccuracies of the past. An effectual historiographical essay should further the reader’s knowledge of the subject at hand. Numerous factors should be taken in consideration in the production of a historiographical essay. All historiographical essays should incorporate critical analysis. These compositions should also be problem centered, meaning they should be centered around a research question.
Later, the information regarding to the primary data methodology is given. This section explicates the reasons behind the selection of a quantitative approach as well as the instrument employed to collect the data. In addition the questions included in the questionnaire are explained and pre-tested. Lastly the sampling method is also described in conjunction with the data analysis process and the ethical standards of the research study. 4.1 Type of research design A research design according to Churchill and Iacobucci (2005) can be defined as “The framework or plan for a study, used as a guide to collect and analyze data.
While the question may be asked as to whether a mixed methods research is possible in light of the two different paradigms, a researcher could resolve the issue through praxis, which Cameron sees as an important part of the mixed methods research. This debate over the ability to carry out such research process can be resolved by praxis, which Cameron describes as the mixed methods researcher becoming “knowledgeable, informed and familiar with the growing body of literature that forms mixed methods as a third methodological movement” (p. 102). Besides, not only must the researcher understand the discipline, but must also be familiar with the methodological and data integration in mixed methods research (Cameron, 2011, p. 102). In other words, debate over the practicality of mixed methods research can be addressed with the researcher recognizing the choices that are available to using mixed methods, and this is possible when mixed methods researchers become knowledgeable in both qualitative and quantitative research methods (Cameron, 2011, p. 104). The pragmatist approach in the research design and implementation phases allows for asking which techniques and procedures are best for the research problem.
The objectives of this essay are to discuss key elements of qualitative and quantitative research designs, including the distinction between them. The distinction between these two research designs will also be compared with scientific and non-scientific approaches. Empirical examples illustrating the usefulness of the two designs are also given. This essay will focus on the key characteristics on aspects of data being used and its collection techniques, how it’s used and analysed as discussed by Popper (1989), Ragin (2000), Flyvbjerg (20010, Janesick (2000), De Vaus (2001), Denzin (2000) and Greenstein, Roberts and Sitas (2003). Discussion Although the key elements of these two types of research design are essentially identical, there are some notable differences in terms of how data is collected and analysed.
Through explored the available methods via a literature review, the most appropriate research methods for this research that will lead to the most valid, reliable responses. 2.0 Research Philosophy Research Philosophy is principle to a research which relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge (Saunders et al, 2007, p.101). Gill and Johnson (2012) also pointed out that “a philosophical choice regarding the nature of human action and its explanation which has direct methodological implications” (Gill and Johnson, 2012, p.168). It reflects how the researchers view the world and effect on which research strategy and the methods will be use in a research. In this section, 2 major ways of thinking about research philosophy will be stated: Ontology and Epistemology.
The theoretical framework is an important component of a research problem. It should be constructed in a way that demonstrates a sound understanding of the theories and concepts that are related to the research problem. The researcher also needs to be knowledgeable about the current and historical literature as it relates to the topic being researched. This is a critical component in the theoretical framework because it reduces the possibility of biasness in the research. A clear connection also needs to be made between the current study’s underlying theory and the study’s findings (Theoretical Framework in Dissertations: A Brief Discussion, 2010).
Research Methodology Research methodology and techniques is a way to conduct research, to explain and justify what the research methods and techniques will follow to get research findings. Inaugurating the best suitable methods and techniques will develop a sound research. Selecting suitable methods and techniques is not an easy task. This research will plan as an outline for data collection and analysis to address research questions and objectives. 2nd reference Research Design This research proposal will use the ‘research onion’ (Saunders et al, 2012), in order to clearly plan research methodology and design it provides a framework design for the research process.