Throughout nineteenth century Europe and leading into the twentieth century, the division and integration of equal rights and liberties towards both genders was a predominant issue. From the 1860’s and beyond, male suffrage was expanding due to working-class activism and liberal constitutionalism, however women were not included in any political participation and were rejected from many opportunities in the workforce. They were considered second-class citizens, expected to restrict their sphere of influence to the home and family, and therefore not encouraged to pursue a beneficial education or career. Because they were seen as such weak entities, the only way they were able to advocate their interests and dissatisfaction was through their own independent organizations and forms of direct action. With hard work towards improving women’s involvement in the workforce and towards political emancipation, womanhood gradually became redefined. When looking back on these crucial times in history, it is necessary to view how various images and ideas of females represented such integral symbols in modern Europe that influenced the pivotal changes they succeeded in putting forward. Earlier photos show women in society as solely conforming to what society wants them to be, however later this changes and images of women go against what is seen as appropriate and advertise the efforts made towards gender equality.
While historians and scholars use a variety of lenses to analyze American history, the examination of the role that gender has played in society provides a view of history broader than the typical patriarchal tunnel vision taught in most history classes today. Men’s roles in society have been molded and crafted by the changes occurring throughout these societies, but women’s roles both in the home and in the workforce have arguably undergone many more radical transformations since the inception of the United States. Specifically, the transformation of womanhood in the first half of the nineteenth century, beginning with the market revolution, permanently changed how women are viewed in society, by both men and other women, and how women relate
1). A lot of these developments pushed businesses to hire more women to handle clerical and administrative tasks. However, inventions like the typewriter, gave a negative stigma towards women in the working world, “…women became stereotyped as able to carry out only menial clerical work, and had to fight to improve their position.” (20th Century London, n.d., para. 3). Since the beginning of time women’s roles have changed drastically, from mainly taking care of household duties in the medieval era up until the early 20th century to acquiring more skills later on in the 20th century, by working positions in the business, medical, and even accounting industry, on top of completing the majority of household
WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Throughout most of history women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men. Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women's most significant professions. In the 20th century, however, women in most nations won the right to vote and increased their educational and job opportunities. Perhaps most important, they fought for and to a large degree accomplished a reevaluation of traditional views of their role in society.
...ments of the latter half of the century. This is evident in the leadership of Eleanor Roosevelt, an American politician, diplomat, and activist whom took as strong stance on civil rights. Hence, women’s roles and interests were changing from exclusively domestic affairs to challenging social injustices as the moral guardians of not just the home but of wider society. Although this de jure change did not affect an immediate general change in society’s expectations of the roles of women, the activism and changes of the progressive era did lead to some barriers being broken down, it became more acceptable for women to work, and the rise of the ‘ideal woman’ - more political, sporty and looking for equality. Thus further supporting the argument that this was the primary force in challenging the traditional roles of women in the first half of the twentieth century.
Women’s jobs included office girls, sales people,nurses, school teachers and telephone operators and for a brief period took over men’s jobs in the war. Women in the 1920’s, predominately stayed at home as housewives. For the first time were allowed to vote in 1921. White collar woman jobs industries included categories of clothing / allied products (10.042) workers, iron and steel - 9,343 products, food and allied products 4,610 .printing and engraving (4,402) wood products 3,157 , leather / rubber goods (2,8186 workers),
Women in the 1920’s and 1930’s were still trying to find their place in society. During World War 1 women had found their place in society due to the lack of men. Women were working the men’s jobs while they were off fighting the war. This gave women the opportunity to do the jobs they were denied all this time. After World War 1 ended women gained the right to vote but they were quickly laid off from their jobs as men returned from the war. By 1929 jobs became scarce; the remaining jobs were given to the men while women were laid off from work. The women, especially married women, were expected to go back to their natural place at home. Although this happened many women continue to work. Out of 25 working categories 70% of the working women were concentrated in only six. There was not much variety in the jobs women were offered or given. Women were still thought of as a lower class than men but these events gave the opportunity for
“Between 1870 and 1920, the number of women in the work forces more than doubled.” (pg. 500) Many contributions had led to this. The woman of America had various jobs during the period. Such jobs these ladies had were being care takers, servants, textile workers, and social workers. Many women however took a turn in the century and began taking control of college. With this came greater opportunities because “there were nearly 1,000 women social workers in 1890 and nearly 30,00...
For those jobs that were available, on average, women earned one third to one-half as much as men. Times were tough; young unmarried women worked to support themselves, married women took factory jobs to support the family when their husbands were unable to. Whether men thought women should remain in the home or not, by the end of the century women were unambiguously present in the economy. In the late nineteenth century society, came the Victorian Age which had rigid moral standards and differentiated roles for genders.
Many groups (e.g. industrial workers, farmers, women, good government advocates, journalists, immigrants, socialists) reacted against the concentration of economic and political power in fewer and fewer hands between 1865 and 1990. What did each of these groups want (i.e. agenda)? Looking at the records of presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson, as well as prior presidents, assess how each of these groups succeeded in achieving these aims from 1880 to 1920.
writes that “By the end of 1959, 39% of women with children aged 6 to 17 held paying jobs” (924). As the gender ratio in the work force began to change, the types of jobs held by Americans was beginning to shift as well. “In 1957, white collar workers outnumbered blue collar workers for the first time in American history (927). As the shift from blue collar work to white collar work was occurring, men were expected to “move often and to conform without question to corporate rules of behavior” (927). Another growing field of work in the
The government started marketing these jobs to women. The patriotic need for women to enter the workforce was stressed through posters, photographs, music, movies, newspapers, and articles. Approximately six million women answered the call to enter the workforce. Between 1940 and 1945 women in the workforce went from 27% to 37% (History.com Staff). Women began to embrace and make changes in their work and family roles that substantially challenged conventional notions of femininity (Anderson
Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth century women in the United States lived in a male-dominated society. Women were always dominated by men in the Patriarchal society because they could not do anything without approval from a man. Women were unequal to men, because men had more privileges, and they ruled women in every aspect. Women were forced to live by rules that were unfair in their households and in the place of work. Men did not treat females as if they were two companions in a relationship or friendship, instead they were treated like slaves . Of course , women would soon want equality between both the genders, but how would they voice their opinion if no one listened to them? Women wanted the same rights as men, they did
Wage Earning Women: Industrial Work and Family Life in the United States, 1900-1930, was written by Leslie Woodcock Tentler in 1982. In this book she researches the employment of women, specifically non-black women in factory jobs, from the years 1900 to 1930. More importantly, her research focused on the wages women received, the work environment, and its community. Tentler’s argument is that the employment of women during this time was an important part of women’s socialization. Everything about the jobs women had, from their wages to their environment, reinforced gender roles and a woman’s dependency on men (Tentler 9).
19th-Century Women Works Cited Missing Women in the nineteenth century, for the most part, had to follow the common role presented to them by society. This role can be summed up by what historians call the “cult of domesticity”. The McGuffey Readers does a successful job at illustrating the women’s role in society. Women that took part in the overland trail, as described in “Women’s Diaries of the Westward Journey” had to try to follow these roles while facing many challenges that made it very difficult to do so. One of the most common expectations for women is that they are responsible for doing the chore of cleaning, whether it is cleaning the house, doing the laundry.