West African Climate Change Essay

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Climate change is a change in global or regional climate patterns. Most of the cold extremes of the world is experiencing warming at a more rapid pace than its warming extremes. In fact, the true cold season now exists in only the polar extremes of the African continent. Western Africa and Guinea are found to also face a reduction of precipitation while its neighboring regions, although also affected with reduced rainfall, are more prone to extreme rainfall, indicating the effect of the change global warming has brought (Aguilar, Aziz Barry, Brunet, Ekang, Fernandes, Massoukina, & Zhang, 2009).
Climate variability is the short term changes in the average weather patterns and agriculture affect each other. Climate variability and change are
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In the last decades, Regional Climate Models have been increasingly used to study the West African climate. These features are essential aspects of the physical response governing the local and regional climate change signal. In the last few years, substantial efforts is made to establish coordinated frameworks that use several RCMs aimed at improving the characterization of the West African climate at various time scales. The Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment is a new initiative by the World Climate Research Program aiming to coordinate international effort in regional climate downscaling and improve on lessons learned in past projects. Africa is a prime focus due to its heightened vulnerability to climate change, and poorly developed adaptation infrastructure (Gbobaniyi,…show more content…
Understanding variability and trends of precipitation in Ghana is crucial for different socio-economic activities, such as agriculture and hydroelectric power -the main source of energy in the country. Several studies have analyzed rainfall trends in West Africa, identifying a downward propensity for the period 1970-2000. A detailed seasonal analysis of rainfall variability and trends from quality-controlled gauge data is still needed in Ghana (Manzanas, 2014). A "Wet" period from the 1950s to the early 1970s was followed by a dry period characterized by the two great droughts of 1973 and 1984. Between these two periods, the reduction in rainfall was remarkable. In the Sahel region, the reduction in rainfall was not as strong, but was felt more acutely. This vision of course has certain limits, due to the fixed comparative periods. For the Sahelian countries, for example, the dry periods lasted from the early 1970s until the early 1990s. Rainfall has increased, although it remains highly variable (Gnisci, 2006). Ghana presents different rainfall regimes along the country from the coast in the south to the Sahelian region in north. These regimes are mainly defined by the north- and south-ward movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, which brings the African