Unequal Distribution Of Property And Factions

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To explain the link between unequal distribution of property and factions, Madison first clarifies the origin of unequal distribution of property. He states people are born with different talents, attitudes, and physical/mental powers. These inherent qualities he called faculties are rewarded by society. According to Madison, “From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession degrees and kinds of property immediately results. (Page 64)” Society prizes some faculties and disregards other, based on people’s needs and culture norms. This fact makes people who were born with compelling aptness will be rewarded more property than others. When a society is liberal, the goal of government is to protect the individual’s rights and property. Since individuals will always have different faculties, the diversity in the faculties of men will always lead to unequal distribution of property.
Next, Madison explains the reasons why unequal distribution of property leads to factions. Under the liberal society, people can freely practice their own faculties and experiment of life. Because people make decisions based on their reasoning and self-interest, they will focus on what is beneficial to them. When a group of people come together because they have the same interest, it becomes a faction. According to Madison’s writing “By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion or of interest… (Page 63)” He believes the unequal distribution of property will divide people into different group and eventually lead citizens to factions. Moreover, because faction is made by people who hold sim...

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...eparates congress into the House and Senate. This further provides internal checks on legislative branch. Likewise, in the political science lecture of the Introduction to Political Thought and Theory in the March, Professor Al Schendan explains these structures as the necessary for liberty.

Because the true liberty is only exit in the place of no

In conclusion, Madison thinks the human nature is ambitious, and the fixed outcome of human ambitions is people create factions to promote their own interests. In the case of preventing corrupt or mischief by factions, he believes majority and pure democracy is not a solution. The method he advocated is a large republic with checking system. He converts human ambition to provide internal checks and balances in government. His point of view stimulated the approval of the proposal of the United States Constitution.

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