Ulcerative Colitis Essay

explanatory Essay
2159 words
2159 words

How can the Disease Extent be divided? Ulcerative colitis progresses from the rectum and moves proximally. Distal disease refers to inflammation that is limited to the rectum (proctitis) or rectum and sigmoid colon. Here it is referred to as proctosigmioditis. If the disease is more extensive it includes the left side of the colon and can cover the splenic flexure. This occurs in 40% of patients. Extensive colitis occurs up to the hepatic flexure. Pan colitis affects the whole of the colon and this can affect up to 20% of patients. Some patients with pan colitis have involvement of the terminal ileum, this is caused by an incompetent ileocaecal valve. Fig 1: Image summarising the extent of Ulcerative Colitis15 Outline the Management of Ulcerative Colitis? Patients with ulcerative colitis if usually referred to a gastroenterologist. This is a specialist who manages patients with gastrointestinal diseases. The physicians will need to assess the severity of the condition. The questions he or she is likely to ask include how many times are you passing stool? Is the stool bloody? Do you have nonspecific symptoms such as a high temperature, tachycardia and shortness of breath? The patient should be examined and investigated to rule out differential diseases. If symptoms are mild then they may not require specific treatment as the symptoms can clear up by itself. Certain foods may trigger diarrhoea and bloating. They should be given lifestyle and dietary advice. They should be advised to drink plenty of fluids and eat small amounts of food throughout the day. Patients should avoid high fibre foods such as bran, beans and nuts. They may also limit their intake of milk products if they are lactose intolerant. Finally they should avoi... ... middle of paper ... ...s can be used to slow down the bone mass loss.8 They can be started on vitamin D and calcium, as both of these substances have bone-strengthening effects.10 What is the Prognosis like for Patient’s with Ulcerative Colitis? Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition with significant relapses and remissions and an increased mortality. A Norwegian study has shown that after 10 year the colectomy rate was 9.8%.19 The IBSEN study showed that 83% of people initially had reoccurring disease. Although 50% were shown to be symptomless after five years.19 This study also demonstrated that 20% of people with proctitis or left-sided colitis progressed to extensive colitis.19 Conclusion Ulcerative colitis is a fairly common disease with significant symptoms that affect the patient quality of life. With appropriate treatment it can be managed successfully. Surgery is curative.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that ulcerative colitis progresses from the rectum and moves proximally. distal disease refers to inflammation that is limited to the
  • Explains that the immediate management of the condition is to resuscitate the patient. hydrocortisone can be commenced through the cannula.
  • Explains aminosalicylates are the first line of treatment for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. they reduce inflammation and can be taken orally, as a suppository or as an enema.
  • Explains that azathioprine is an immunosuppressant which reduces inflammation. it can be taken orally and the dose will vary with severity of symptoms.
  • Explains that surgical complications can be split into abdominal, stoma, and pouch complications.
  • Describes the complications of ulcerative colitis, including primary sclerosis cholangitis, toxic mega colon and bowel cancer.
  • Explains that the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis is limited because there is no curative medical therapy.
  • Explains that gas becomes trapped in the large intestinal and causes it to swell and if left to progress it can be life-threatening.
  • Explains that ulcerative colitis patients have an increased risk of developing bowel cancer — the 10 year risk is 1 in 509, and the risk after 30 years is 1. patients should be screened by colonoscopy every few years to check no neoplastic changes.
  • Explains that osteoporosis is a common complication of ulcerative colitis. it causes decreased bone mass and makes them more prone to fractures.
  • Explains that ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition with significant relapses, and mortality. a norwegian study showed that after 10 years the colectomy rate was 9.8%.
  • Explains that ulcerative colitis is a fairly common disease with significant symptoms that affect the patient's quality of life. surgery is curative.
  • Advises that patients with ulcerative colitis should be examined by a gastroenterologist to rule out differential diseases.
  • Explains that steroid use for more than 12 weeks can cause osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, and weight gain.
  • Explains the use of an artificial antibody that targets the protein tnf-alpha, which the immune system uses to stimulate inflammation.
  • Explains that surgical removal of the colon is the curative treatment of ulcerative colitis.
  • Describes the symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis, which causes inflammation, fibrosis and stricture formation of the intra and extra hepatic ducts.
  • Explains how intravenous fluids, antibiotics and steroids can be used to treat haustra loss in toxic megacolon. in severe cases, a colectomy may be performed.
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