Locke also has a better argument than Hobbes because Hobbes’ belief that it is necessary to have a supreme ruler in order to prevent the state of war in society is inherently flawed. This is because doing so would create a state of war in and of itself. Locke states that the correct form of civil government should be committed to the common good of the people, and defend its citizens’ rights to life, health, liberty, and personal possessions. He expects that a civil government’s legislative branch will create laws which benefit the wellbeing of its citizens, and that the executive branch will enforce laws under a social contract with the citizenry. “The first and fundamental positive law of all common-wealths is the establishing of the legislative power; as the first and fundamental natural law, which is to govern even the legislative itself, is the preservation of the society and (as far as will consist with the public good) of every person in it.”1 Locke believes that humans inherently possess complete and i... ... middle of paper ... ...he state of war from occurring in society.
Montesquieu argued that to protect the rights of the nation and the security of destruction from the law; self governing bodies must possess individual powers to slow down the natural tendencies of an absolute monarchy. Basically Montesquieu thought that in order to get out of an absolute monarchy and to govern yourself; you must protect the rights of your country and stop the destruction of your country from the law. He thought that human beings could solve society's problems by using their ability to reason. Montesquieu thought that people should take a direct part in their government and not follow what a king or dictator says. That the people living in the country should decide what laws they live by and what there freedoms are.
Both philosophers were supporters of individual equality and freedoms. The two contrast in that Hobbes theorizes a contract exists between the sovereign and the people, once you agree to the sovereign, he cannot be overthrown and you are at his mercy. He also feels that social order begins with a state of nature. However, Locke feels the government is conditional and can be overthrown if the people are not represented correctly. He argued that without the arrangement of a successful government human being’s would live in the “state of nature.” Locke and Hobbes also differ because Hobbes feels that the sovereign should be all-powerful and individuals should not rebel against the sovereign.
His official concern is with epistemology, the theory of knowledge. Locke sees the u... ... middle of paper ... ...ers. Against Hobbes, Locke argues that the ruler's rights as well as those of everyone are restrained by the laws of nature; the right to life, liberty, and property. The ruler's powers are given to him as a trust for the good of the citizens, and if the trust is broken his powers can be taken away. He believed that a monarchy with an assembly to hold the monarch to his trust was an ideal political arrangement.
These differences affect the livelihood and happiness of people. Hobbes wanted a government to prevent chaos and anarchy as he saw all men were selfish after his experience with the Civil War, while Locke wanted a government to protect everyone’s natural rights. Hobbes Monarch with an absolute ruler, Is different than Locke’s idea of a constitutional government. Hobbes absolute ruler theory forced people to behave themselves, and protected them from killing each other, Locke’s constitutional theory protected their lives, their liberty, and their property. These are different because, while Locke agrees with protecting peoples lives such as Hobbes did, he also believed more than just lives should be protected.
To fulfill the functions of the contract, governments make rules that everyone must follow and they have the authority to punish those who do not follow them. Governments achieve their authority in two ways, their legitimacy and their ability to use force. Hobbes and Locke, however, had quite different views on the terms of this social contract. Hobbes social contract wanted people to surrender their freedom to the state and in return, they received order and security. Hobbes believed that as long as the government was maintaining order, the people did not have the right to break this contract and were obligated to follow
Philosophers from the ancient times to philosophers of today and the modern society all have voiced their opinions on how a government should be set up and ruled in order to have a just society. Some philosophers say that the government is corrupt and unjust while others argue that the government controls fairly and appropriately. The two main positions that philosophers believe are resources in society should be distributed to obtain common good and live life as long as you do not infringe on others. The laws and rules the United States government currently has in place today often originate from these philosophers ideas and work to maintain a just society. The definition of a just society can be described as a society with equality and solidarity where everyone is treated the way they deserve to be treated.
Locke's Second Treatise of Government, by far, is his most influential and important piece of writing. In it he set forth his theory of natural law and natural right. He shows that there does exist a rational purpose to government, and one need not rely on "mysticism and mystery." Against anarchy, Locke saw his job as one who must defend government as an institution. Locke's object was to insist not only that the public welfare was the test of good government and the basis for properly imposing obligations on the citizens of a country, but also that the public welfare made government necessary.
During the convention in Philadelphia, George Washington addressed his view on stability of the people. He urged the delegates not to make a document that only “pleased the people.” Fair treatment within classes was necessary but in contradiction to the Founding fathers belief, “man is an unregenerate rebel who has to be controlled.” (page 7) The founding fathers believed in representative government, based on sovereignty and emphasis on civic virtue. They opposed arbitrary rule indicated by the revolution against Britain. The reason for independence ... ... middle of paper ... ...ible voice in society.” (Page 18) Freedom for property was only given to worthy men. This contradicts the statement that all men are created equal.
Human beings act first and foremost in their own interest. As John Locke outlines in his work Second Treatise on Civil Government, the interests of people often intersect in such a manner that they find it to be advantageous to work together and form a society. In The Leviathan, however, Thomas Hobbes presents a view of the world that relies heavily on belief in the irrationality and illogicality of human nature when making decisions. Locke’s theories create a fully functional and peaceful society because they provide for the individual rights and responsibilities of people, whereas Hobbes’ imaginings of civilization fail to acknowledge the full capabilities of humans as rational decision makers who desire to live in a society with at least