According to Differential Association, criminal behavior is learned based on the interactions we have with others and the values that we receive during that interaction.
...istical trends through social encounters, peer pressure, and mimicking familial models affect criminal activity in many places around the world today. Criminals are more likely to not delay gratifications; thus, they will elect the quickest way to become satisfied through criminal acts. The trend can be broken by taking action fighting these criminal acts and leading our society on the path of success.
Theories have played a vital role in determining ideas that are intended to be explained or tested. In the area of crime, criminological theories have been the foundation of establishing why people commit crimes and also understanding the reasoning behind those actions. The paper will evaluate Doug MacRay from the movie The Town (2010) and the different aspects that made him who he is. Criminological theories like Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura can simplify Doug MacRay and his needs to commit crimes.
Social learning theory plays an important role in analyzing criminal. Social learning theory argues that crime is a learning process and criminal behaviors are inherited from others. Crime is taught by people who believe criminal acts are normal in society. In today’s society, criminological theories are “not only in the academic world, through scholarly research, but also in popular culture, through such vehicles as film” (Rafter and Brown 1). Popular culture is a theory that explains to society the causes of crime and the social conceptions of crime or violence. Social learning theory is a valid and reliable theory which explains criminal behaviors. This theory believes that humans are subjected to criminal acts. Criminal behaviors are acquired
Biological and psychological explanations cannot adequately explain the social patterns of why an individual commits crime. The need to address and dissect society’s social structure can be linked to many theories. Theoretically, crime results from the breakdown of social organization and society's norm. Several criminological theories have traced the roots of crime to problems in a society itself based on biological, sociological or psychological problems within human beings. The earlier in life an individual becomes under the influence of crime, the more likely the individual is to continue following in the footsteps (Bohm and Vogel, 2011).
Burglaries, robberies, and shootings, all of which may leave victims or innocent bystanders severely hurt or dead, are now frequent enough to concern all urban and many suburban residents. Living in a dangerous environment places young people at risk of falling victim to such malicious and aggressive behavior observed and learned from others. Social institution such as education, family, religion, peer groups, etc., play a major role in the influence of crime in the urban neighborhoods that Anderson describes. As said in the essay, "although almost everyone in poor inner-...
This is known as the theory of differential association which states that “people commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior.” (Criminology) According to Edwin Sutherland, deviant and criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with other people in society, and just like learning in school, crime can be learned in the same fashion. As a result crime is more prevalent in environments where crime and deviant behavior is more acceptable, like in poor inner cities. Most of these inner city environments lack opportunities meaning that they do not provide the people living there with the structure they need for success. This along with constant exposure to gangs and illegal activities are what lead people to participate in these types of deviant behaviors. Interactions with gangs along with “Social interactions seem to create a sense of invulnerability and a willingness to violate social norms and take risks, as long as one is in the company of likeminded individuals.” (Crime and Social Interactions) As long as people have a support system, they will continue to commit illegal acts like robbery. The reason for this is linked to the interactions they make with the people around them. If people observe others making money off of illegal activities when they can barely support themselves off of legal work, the vast majority will quit their job in order to participate in the process of making a profit off of illegal activity. As stated before crime and deviance is learned through social interactions and
In lower socioeconomic environments, there might be a level of order that is beyond the reach of officers to combat, and gangs thrive on these neighborhoods. With gang members and recruitment surrounding youths, deviant behavior is rampant in lower class neighborhoods. Broken homes lead to this, especially in single mother homes, as children do not have a strong male figure in the household; therefore, they turn to a friend or person they admire and in numerous situations they join the gang of a person they deem as a predominant male figure. They join for support, self-confidence, and for a feeling of a greater purpose that they had not previously acquired from school, family, etc. (McNeil, Herschberger,& Nedela, 2013). Deviant behavior in gangs can control a community, as elderly will be less likely to leave their homes, citizens will be reluctant to travel to locations where social control is not in command, and vagrants populate. Police attempt to reduce these behaviors with criminologist theories, but these theories “explain crime in terms of weak internal control mechanisms developed in early childhood in combination with weak or absent social rules” (Nakhaie, Silverman, & LaGrange, 2000). Gangs and juvenile delinquency foster communities that many times police are not able to adequately restore to ‘normalcy’; therefore, the community breeds delinquent behavior at a rapid pace.
There are many theories describing the political and social influences that explain rates of deviant behaviors. The formation of social limits determining what is right or wrong is urgently needed in the functioning of a society. A cultural transmission theory was proposed by Shaw and McKay explaining criminal and deviant patterns of behavior in certain neighborhoods (Humphrey, & Schmalleger, 2012).This theory refers to the process by which delinquent behavior is culturally
Akers claimed that the main processual variables of the theory used at the micro level, differential association, differential reinforcement, definitions, and imitation, are affected indirectly by the social structures which, in turn, have a direct affect on an individuals behavior (As cited in Cullen et al., 2014). There have been four dimensions of social structure to which provide the contexts for the social learning variables to operate which include, differential social organization, differential location in the social structure, theoretically defined social structure variables, and differential social locations. These social structure dimensions discussed above, Akers noted, “provide the general learning contexts for individuals that increase or decrease the likelihood of them committing crime… immediate contexts that promote or discourage the criminal behavior of the individual…and socialization, learning environments, and immediate situations conducive to conformity or deviance” (As cited in Cullen et al., 2014, p. 147).