Sartre and the Rationalization of Human Sexuality ABSTRACT: Sartre rationalizes sexuality much like Plato. Rationalization here refers to the way Sartre tries to facilitate explanation by changing the terms of the discussion from sexual to nonsexual concepts. As a philosophy which, above all, highlights those features of human existence which seem most resistant to explanation, one would expect existentialism to highlight sexuality as a category that is crucial for considering human existence. Descartes comes immediately to mind when one focuses on Sartre's major categories. In Sartre's case however, it is not mind and matter but consciousness and its opposite: "nothingness" and "being."
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is criticized for being framed within hetero-normative conception of gender that divides male-female difference and ignores difference and exclusion within the gender categories. Through this theory, many heterosexual and homosexual individuals find their sexual identities through their moral beliefs about their sexual behaviors and dictate whether they are virgin or non-virgin. With the flexibility about virginity loss and the different meanings of what it is being a virgin revolves around complexity, therefore we cannot give a set description of the sexual identity of virginity because of our multiple acts of coitus and sexualities such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual behaviors. The reason why I propose this is because with the given different types of coitus, and dependent on the social group and social factors that play within the role of identity is far more difficult to come to an exact meaning of considering who and what makes you a virgin or non-virgin.
Philosopher Thomas Nagel questioned what differentiated “natural” from “abnormal” sexual behavior. His studies were focused on the perverse aspect of sexual activity. He believed that sexual behaviors are only moral if it is a mutual act. He strongly stated that if two people are both aware of causing pleasure to one another, then the sexual activity would be considered natural. He claimed that when one sees that they are giving someone else pleasure, it causes satisfaction to themselves.
The reasons for our sexual choices are analyzed obsessively, imposing an undue emphasis on categorization rather than accepting the great diversity of same-sex attractions. But the act of categorizing all of these atypical sexual attractions does not mean that acting on them is either legal or morally acceptable nor unacceptable. Explanations for all of the elements of our sexual attractions are complex and probably unknowable. All research runs the risk of reductionism, but when research on sexuality focuses exclusively on genital sexual activity --to the exclusion of considerations of attraction, affection and affiliation--it falls short in understanding our
Normalization is the process of bringing or returning something to a normal condition or state. With the recurrence of queer characters in media, society may feel that it has become normalized or more accepting. But there is a difference between being tolerant and accepting, since the media is depicted through heterosexual normative eyes, there is an extent to which homosexuality is displayed. The homosexuality displayed is the reinforcement of heterosexual normalization. By strongly defining homosexuality as being secretive and effeminate then you are defining heterosexuality as masculine and out because they are defined by what the other one is not.
Sexuality is a socially created phenomenon, or as Halperin says, “sexuality is not a somatic fact, it is a cultural effect” (Halperin 416). This means that sexuality is entirely dependant upon the social world because it is created by the social world. Halperin argues against the prevailing concept that our sexual activities make any statements about our sexuality in and of itself. Halperin claims that “one of the currently unquestioned assumptions about sexual experience which the study of antiquity calls into question is the assumption that sexual behavior reflects or expresses an individual's 'sexuality'” (Halperin 417). With this statement, Halperin raises the issue of what exactly a sexuality is, and how it can be defined.
The third gender is often used by social scientists to describe cultures . And why people acted they way they act because maybe that's not who they really are and they trying to find themselves Sexuality is different again it is about sexual attraction, sexual practices and identity. Just as sex and gender don’t always align, neither does gender and sexuality. People can identify along a wide variety of sexualities from heterosexual, to gay or lesbian, to bisexual, to queer, and so on. Asexuality is a term used when individuals do not feel sexual attraction.
In society you would never expect things such as a sexual disorder or abnormal sexual behavior to happen to an ordinary person. Abnormal sexual behavior consist of different disorders, but in order for it to be considered a disorder it must have one of the three requirements, which are bringing harm to others, persistent or recurrent distress, or impairment in important areas of functioning. When looking more in debt at sexual disorders there are many different reasons why disorders occur, from being raped to it just being genetically, you never know why a person is the way they are. To name a few, some of these disorders that occur are pedophilia, exhibitionist, fetishism, partialism, and etc. To begin, abnormality in individual sexual responsiveness is called sexual dysfunctions.
Sexual Morality “There must be integrity between body and life. You must not do with your body what you’re not willing to do with your whole life” (Keller). Keller is directly talking about our individual sexual morality and how or how not it should be perceived in a social context. Most people think sexual dilemmas of it in a broader spectrum, not directly related to one’s morality, by saying “this act isn’t right” where others may simply say “why not”. Yet, what justifies an act for one person and condemns it for another?
Times changes and so do viewpoints on what is sexually acceptable, however, some forms of sexual deviancy such as pedophilia will never be acceptable by any standards of human decency. Sexual deviancy is defined by Wikipedia as Paraphilia. This term is used to describe sexual objects or images that cause sexual arousal, Paraphilia “involves sexual arousal and gratification towards sexual behavior that is atypical or extreme” (Wikipedia) and viewed as abnormal to the standards that society has set at that time. We as society have come so far in our acceptance of sexual orientation and sexual identity. Some of this due to advocacy, but a majority of these changing viewpoints are due to internet pornography.