Probable one of the first rational theory proposals was from Beccaria in the 1700s (Bonesania & Beccaria, 1738-1794). Beccaria main position was that people chose to commit 2 crime of their own free will. His theory is based on the assumptions the criminals will consider what they have to gain compared to what can be lost and choose their action. This concept, of course would relate to passionate crime as it would to all crimes. In Beccaria’s view the passionate crime offende... ... middle of paper ... ...ith the rational theory concept, however we should not leave it at that without examining how do we prevent, intervene, and explain why they choice to commit.
If this is the case, then the type of deterrence has worked. It has scared the individual out of committing crimes. , there is still a chance that these two individuals might not learn from their mistakes and continue to commit crime. Researchers have found that there are two reasons for that. Number one being, a selection process where the most active criminals seem to get caught; number two is a “resetting” that they might believe that their bad luck will end and they will not get caught.
In the 17th and 18th century, the purpose of punishment in society was to seek revenge and retribution for the crimes, however, in the 18th century classicist criminology thinking emerged in response to the cruel punishments that were handed out. The two key leaders of this was Beccaria and Bentham, both of which were utilitarian, so believed the reductivist approach to punishment would be the most effective. Beccaria argued that the purpose of punishment was to make society associate a strong link between the crime and punishment so they knew the consequences of their actions (Easten, S. and Piper, C,. 2012), he argued this could be done by delivering the punishment as quickly as possible and believed that the certainty of punishment in society would be the most effective way of deterrence (Newburn, T. 2007). The other key leader Bentham, argued that the purpose of punishment should be to show people that the cost of the crime outweighs the gains of it, he was a supporter of the use of prisons and thought that punishment should be proportionate to the crime and have predictable, certain consequences to deter people from future offences.
It is the means of understanding the human behaviour towards criminal activities and the ways through which it can be controlled. Moreover, the theory considers two factors that are situational factor and personal factor, which are the major reason behind formulation of the theory. Beccaria developed the theory to make it convenient for the people to understand the personal as well as situational factors through which crime rate is increasing. This is because it helps in minimising the rising impact of criminal
The example above is part of the rational choice theory and the reason is because that particular person weighed the costs and benefits of their illegal action. Rational choice theory is a vision where crime is a functionality of the decision-making process of the criminal in which they weigh the costs and benefits of an illegal act in society (Siegel, 2011). Criminals use the rational choice theory in society when they are trying to avoid any kind of pain and are in a mindset of looking for pleasure. Criminals find the easiest way to have fun and find a ... ... middle of paper ... ...ifferent crime patterns and thought processes of criminals. The reasons can only come from these theories and will help the justice systems become more prepared to react towards different crimes.
The first one is called general deterrence which has the goal of scaring society into not committing crime. This is the part of the theory that helps deter crime. The way this works is by arresting someone and giving them a harsher sentence so the next person who has thoughts of committing that crime can second guess their choices. When we arrest a small portion of offenders it can be beneficial because they are living proof of the consequences that possible offenders can reevaluate (Cullen and Jonson 70). The second kind of deterrence is specific deterrence which targets offenders and scares them into not wanting to return to prison.
The assumption that understanding criminal behaviour is the most important tool we have to combat the incidence of crime has prompted many philosophers, jurists, psychologists, psychiatrists, socialists and others to seek a plausible explanation for the commission of crimes. Their methods are diverse, some employing scientific means and others using empirical evidence to explore why people engage in “deviant” activity. The most convincing of these theories are those which explain criminal behaviour by reference to the individual, such as the classical theory, which views criminal behaviour as being the free and rational choice of the individual. The theory then offers proportionate punishment as a means to discourage people from reoffending or to deter others from acting criminally. Whilst the theory is not without it flaws, it is difficult to disprove such a theory in the absence of establishing the offender was not capable of rational thought at the time of committing the offence.
Social control theory is established on logical values that individuals naturally commit crime if they are left alone. In other words, we, all are born with some criminal characteristics. We learn social norms as we grow. The recent research suggested that obedience and self-control in early age is important before their personality deviate. Policies have been implemented based on control theories to control crime and delinquency (Bernard et al., 2010, p. 219).
The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished. Understanding crimes from inside out allows us to avoid breaking the law and being considered criminals. Most criminals have a reason to
Criminals become criminals because of choices they choose to make; although, choices are a major part of why people become criminals there are also other contributing factors for example what they were taught or the environment that they grew up in both in home and out of home environments, and the psychological affects that has on them. Some criminals commit crimes strictly by choice or what is known as the choice theory. There is a man by the name of Cesare Beccaria who lived from (1738-1794) he was a part of the reform of criminal justice he believed that people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain. His thoughts were basically that crimes must provide some pleasure to the criminal and in order to avoid crime pain or punishment must be administered in an appropriate amount to counter balance the pleasure obtained from crime. Cesare Beccaria’s views are know as the classical theory of crime or also known today as the choice theory.