The Working, Single Mother Primary Care Vs. Secondary Care

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Comparing its structure and function as it was in 1960 with what it had become in 1990 can highlight the dramatic changes in the American family. Until 1960 most Americans shared a common set of beliefs about family life; family should consist of a husband and wife living together with their children. The father should be the head of the family, earn the family's income, and give his name to his wife and children. The mother's main tasks were to support and enable her husband's goals, guide her children's development, look after the home, and set a moral tone for the family. Marriage was an enduring obligation for better or worse and this was due much to a conscious effort to maintain strong ties with children. The husband and wife jointly coped with stresses. As parents, they had an overriding responsibility for the well being of their children during the early years-until their children entered school, they were almost solely responsible. Even later, it was the parents who had the primary duty of guiding their children's education and discipline. Of course, even in 1960, families recognized the difficulty of converting these ideals into reality. Still, they devoted immense effort to approximating them in practice. As it turned out, the mother, who worked only minimally--was the parent most frequently successful in spending the most time with her children. Consequently, youngsters were almost always around a parental figure -- they were well-disciplined and often very close with the maternal parent who cooked for them, played with them, and saw them off to and home from school each day. Over the past three decades these ideals, although they are still recognizable, have been drastically modified across all social classes. Women have joined the paid labor force in great numbers stimulated both by economic need and a new belief in their capabilities and right to pursue opportunities. Americans in 1992 are far more likely than in earlier times to postpone marriage. Single parent families--typically consisting of a mother with no adult male and very often no other adult person present-have become common. Today at least half of all marriages end in divorce (Gembrowski 3). Most adults no longer believe that couples should stay married because divorce might harm their children. Of course, these contemporary realities have great consequential impact on mother-ch... ... middle of paper ... ...this reason that the relationship that exists between mother and child today has changed so drastically. References Aragona, J., & Eyeberg, S. "Neglected children: Mothers' reports of child behavior problems and observed verbal behavior." Child Development 52 (1995): 596-602. Bousha, D., & Twentyman, C. "Mother-child interaction style in abuse, neglect, and control groups: Naturalistic observations in the home." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93 (1997) : 106-114. Burgess, R. L., & Conger, R. D. "Family interaction in abusive, neglectful, and normal families." Child Development 49 (1998) : 1163-1173. Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. "Psychologically unavailable care giving." In M. R. Brassard, R. Germaine, & S. N. Hart (Eds.), Psychological maltreatment of children and youth. New York: Pergamon, 1997 (pp. 110-120). Gembrowski, Susan. "A Portrait of Families Today." Los Angeles Times, 22 Oct. 1992 : 3. Giovannoni, J. M., & Becerra, R. M. Defining child abuse. New York: Free Press, 1996. Zajonc, R.B. "Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences." American Psychologist 35 (1998) : 151-175.

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