My argument is that the concept of Orientalism is a Western misconception ... ... middle of paper ... ...t. Misinformation and prejudice are various outcomes of popular culture’s illustration of foreign cultures. Yet, when discussing the origins and impact of Orientalism, the concept continues to be bolstered by the trendy era of technology. The illustration of the Orient is currently being viewed on television, in films, and on the World Wide Web. These representations of the Orient are available in a lot of condensed forms, and are simpler and more effective than before. The concept of Orientalism is a European created mirror reflecting itself.
American foreign policy of the late 19th century is often defined by the manner with which it had asserted itself onto the world stage, namely in terms of its reinvigoration of the Monroe Doctrine and its new found sense of imperial expansion. Though it is true that such incidents as the War of 1812, and such notions as Manifest Destiny had demonstrated these characteristics, it seems that the expansionist zeal of the latter part of the century was differed significantly. To start, both periods did, however, remain quite similar in that they both justified expansion with notions of Anglo-Saxon supremacy, and of spreading the benefits of Western, Christian civilization. Outside of this singular similarity, one may find major discrepancies, specifically in terms of the manner whereby such imperialist pursuits were conducted, and in the subsequent questions raised, particularly by opponents of such endeavours. The former notion is perhaps most evident in the late 19th century emphasis on naval power and in its extension of the Monroe Doctrine; the latter being found in the new concerns with the constitutionality and morality of acquiring foreign lands.
In spite of this, China by not being able to withstand western influence incorporated imperialism and obtained a modern military and technology from the favored nations. Albeit, the western powers forced imperialism to East Asia differently than the rest of the world. Modern East Asia still emerged with parts of its ancient culture still intact. The unequal treaties, extraterritoriality, and other forms of discriminatory decrees created the Westernization of China, Japan, and Korea and gave these nations hope for the future that Western dominance would soon pass. Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia , Anne Walthall, and James Palais.
These large communications companies hold the power over information and culture and act as the catalyst in the process of the homogenization of global cultures thus creating a one-world culture. This movement towards cultural homogeneity does not come without the elimination or eradication of heterogeneity (Zhang, 48). The amalgamation of cultures into one western Americanized culture does not allow for the celebration of cultural differences or promote the uniqueness of traditional cultures. Globalization and development is based on the idea that in order for countries to prosper they must become like the western world, more specifically America, and this ideology has destroyed cultures globally and created a McWorld where faster, cheaper, bigger and western is better.
Nikogas Balian (son of the principal architecture of the Dolmabahce Palace) designed the famous Büyük Mecidiye mosque at Ortaköy. (Appendix 6) He used baroque designs on its exterior’s surface, sculpted with rich patterns while its interior remains delicately composed with light pastel colors. This mosque reflects “East-West synthesis of the nineteenth century” as Yeomans explains. He further claims: It could be argued that the grace and charm of the Ortaköy mosque lacks sanctity, and this raises the question of whether Westernisation secularises Ottoman religious buildings. The essence of Yeomans’ argument is that Westernisation has indeed affected many aspects of Ottoman culture including religious ones.
In fully comprehending this, one must look at the Meiji restoration through the framework of Japanese historiography and acknowledge the limits of western influence and realise that it was not the sole power in Japan’s transition into a modern nation state. Westernization only spurred transformation in Japan, the greatest change being that it forced Japan out of its feudal past and on to the global stage to adopt an identity as a modern nation state. This led to economic improvements and legal reforms which dismantled old class divisions. However, Japan’s own internal forces and idiosyncrasies of its entrenched household registration system maintained ongoing prejudices and discriminative practices that still remain in contemporary Japan.
India and Indians were deemed a childish, superstitious and backward nation with a huge potential for development. In the world view of Mill and others the crude emerging civilisation of India could be directed and moulded by the morally superior colonial power. Mill advocated the introduction of European knowledge to counter balance Indian traits judged to be irrational. Instilling ideals of reason would accordingly 'reform' Indians by the example of Western systems of thought and outlook. The ideas contained within the History Of British India discredited Indian culture, language and literature even as its assumptions of moral superiority authorise and justified the presence of the British in India.
“Art Museums and the Ritual of Citizenship” by Carol Duncan: A Response to Western Cultural Imperialism and the “Ritual” of Modernity in European/American Museums Duncan’s (1991) analysis of western museums is defined through the theme of “durable objects” as a criterion to judge the heritage of American and European art as a ritual of the modern state. In this manner western art museums are built like “temples” as a symbolic and figurative representation of greatness of western culture throughout the world: “[They] are more like the traditional ceremonial monuments that museum buildings often emulate—classical temples” (Duncan 90). This interpretation of American/European museums defines a dominant source of cultural heritage that ritualizes
Edward Said's Orientalism (1978) talks about Orientalism as an ideology discourse and body of knowledge created by westerners and then homogenizes the eastern world and its culture. Europeans were counting themselves as civilized people whose support was needed for the progress of orients. And all these accounts together points towards the legitimacy of the travel records written by the travelers because before visiting eastern land they already had an image which overshadowed what they were actually encountering. Here I think even these travel accounts were not the primary source because travelers were going through the earlier records prior to them and was imagining and forming their thoughts accordingly. Marco Polo, who was the first traveler to mention about Indian gods, in his travel account mentioned about the people of south India, he
Cultural appropriation, as described in Sabeen Sandhu’s article “Instant Karma: The Commercialization of Asian Indian Culture,” is not new. Rather, it is the latest iteration in a long history of Western imperialism and exploitation of other cultures and societies. Using a primarily a symbolic interactionist lens, in her article Sandhu highlights two fundamental aspects of appropriation that differentiate the phenomenon from appreciation: the focus solely on one facet of a symbol and commercialization. Symbols, by definition, have meaning that is established and changed by interaction through the cycle of meaning. This meaning, then, is multifaceted and complex with a rich history of culture and tradition behind it.