Norman Davies, a leading English historian, wrote, “There is an air of immobility about many descriptions of the medieval world” (Davies 291). However, these descriptions he refers to do not capture the true essence of the Middle Ages of Europe, which were a continuation and a formation. They were a continuation of old Rome in race, language, institutions, law, literature, arts, and in cultures independent of Rome. Nevertheless, the Middle Ages were not merely a continuation; they were the formation of our world. Many modern-day historians argue that the so-called Dark Ages were a period of ascent rather than of descent, that with the withering of the pagan classic civilization came the first budding of a new culture that was to develop into our modern civilization.
Laud’s New Religious Policies for the Church of England. Laud’s attempts to make the Church more conformed coincided with King Charles I’s personal rule without parliament. In fact, Charles embarked on policies which made the English feel under threat. The Venetian ambassador in London wrote Charles had “changed the principles by which his predecessors reigned…if the road he has taken will lead him to absolute royalty, which is definitely the goal he has set for himself” (Young 106). Even though many English... ... middle of paper ... ... urges and argues for the need for re-evolution of Laud career and achievements.
John Soane (1753 – 1837), is one of the most original English architects. Soane’s personal style is superficially Neo-Classical, but with his interest in death and ruins Soane was also very much at the forefront of the picturesque design. Whilst Gottfried Semper (1803 -79), a German architect, took up Neo-Renaissance design as well as a belief that in the expression of the function of a building in its exterior, including any decorative. This paper will concentrate upon examine the difference and similarities of those two prominent architects in the 19th century. More specifically arguing that both architects are vastly different in employing revivalism in their work and thus indicates the values and idea is of each nation is also different.
During the Middle Ages, Christian historians broke history into three divisions: the creation, the incarnation of Jesus Christ and the anticipated last judgement. Medieval scholars believed that they were living in the final age before the last judgement. The Renaissance brought a cultural break with medieval tradition known as humanism. This was the tendency of the time to attach great importance to classical studies and to consider classical antiquity as the common standard and model by which to guide all cultural activity. This ideology led Renaissance humanists to develop new divisions of history: antiquity, the Middle Ages and the golden age of rebirth.
I agree with Bernard; there is no need to be stylish when adorning cathedrals if there are better uses for that money. The other important characteristics of the Gothic cathedrals were the large stained windows, Rosetta windows, spires, and gargoyles (Sancho-Velasquez 2014). Suger's defensive argument on the elaborate characteristics of Gothic cathedrals was, "Everything that is most precious should be used above... ... middle of paper ... ...d believe in the criticism he gave Suger. Suger only cared about how powerful and mighty he wanted the Gothic cathedrals to look. He never stopped and realized that there is no need to be so extravagant with cathedrals because it is not worth it.
Neoclassicism was, at first a reaction to the “triviality” of the Rococo style, which was seen as selfish, decadent and with no regard for society. Throughout the seventeenth century, and during the Rococo period, the French Academy promoted a more classical style. It was because of this that French artists of the late eighteenth century accepted the New Classicism that was to be the next popular style. The Neo-classical period was influenced by two major features: The first was the heavy influence of Nicolas Poussin (1593/4 – 1665). Cardinal Barberini commissioned Poussin to make drawings of all the classical art and architecture he could find, which had a great impact on his subsequent work.
Revivalists, on the other hand, felt a nation should choose a shared style which draws on the history of that particular nation. This led to disagreements in many European nations as to what style best fit their national history and would evoke pride among its citizens. Two distinct styles came about during this era, the light and highly decorated Gothic Revival, and the simpler and firmer Romanesque Revival. Philosophy of Aesthetics and Gothic Revival During this period, the Enlightenment thinkers rationalized and codified about everything, including architecture referring to the Greeks and Romans, identified as the Classical Revivals. At the same time, the new philosophy of Aesthetics contradicted the Enlightenment and brought a different view on arts and beauty, presented by thinkers like Alexander Baumgarten, Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, and William Gilpin, that searched for answers on sensibility or “responsiveness to stimulation of the senses.” Seen by many as a justification of the Medieval revivals and an opposition to the Enlightenment theories that define the idea of beauty around Vitruvius’ emphasis on proport... ... middle of paper ... ...ition and political theories went along with people and consequently the Romanesque style was revived in the United States about the same time as in Germany due to many German immigrants.
Naturally, when a religion becomes world renowned, someone will eventually find a flaw in the system, and that’s what Luther and his reformers did. The Catholic Church didn’t help their case by becoming greedy and trying to cover their loses either. Another major long-term cause was humanists urging for a simpler, less corrupt religion. Finally strong national monarchs emerging was a major cause to the Protestant Reformation. Many of these long-term causes of the Protestant Reformation led to impactful and sever consequences for western
Upchurch declares: The novel was immediately controversial because of the ethics of the aesthetic doctrines it seemed to embrace. Critics have since approached the book from a variety of positions: as an autobiography of Wilde's life, as gothic melodrama, and as an aesthetic novel. The idea that The Picture of Dorian Gray is a heavily aesthetic novel is very true because the central theme of the novel is that art should only exist to be art. Alan Crawford examines... ... middle of paper ... ...sh Literature in Transition, 1880-1920. 36.4 ( 1993): 429-450.
He theorized and built buildings inspired by this principle, and succeeded because of his emphasis on individual experience and the interaction between humanity and architectural forms. In pursuit of this goal, his pluralist and revolutionary style of architecture embraced difference and ambiguity and rejected the rigid rules of modernism. While undoubtedly influenced by Venturi’s ideas, later postmodern architects failed to live up to his principles by forming their own inflexible rules and not concentrating on the human experience with buildings. This paper represents my own work in accordance with University regulations. |x| Duncan Hosie