Effectively communicating an idea or opinion requires several language techniques. In his study of rhetoric, Aristotle found that persuasion was established through three fundamental tools. One is logos, which is used to support an argument through hard data and statistics. Another is ethos, which is the credibility of an author or speaker that allows an audience to conclude from background information and language selection a sense of knowledge and expertise of the person presenting the argument. The impact of pathos, however, is the most effective tool in persuasion due to the link between emotions and decisions. Although each of these tools can be effective individually, a combination of rhetorical devices when used appropriately has the ability to sway an audience toward the writer’s point of view. In an article originally published in May 2003 in USA Today called “College Isn’t For Everyone,” by W.J. Reeves combined these rhetorical devices to make a compelling argument that although colleges are easily accessible, higher education lacks students with the capabilities of academic success. To validate this claim, Reeves uses persuasive appeals to convey an effective argument by influencing the audience, however, he limits his reach because of the excessive pathos and condescending tone used to present his argument. The hard, logical proof used to persuade is called logos. Authors use this technique to support their propositional statements in an argument. By supporting an opinion with a sufficient amount of data, an audience is able to find the argument believable. Logos, however, goes beyond the abundance of information geared toward swaying an opinion into agreement. Presenting facts also includes decisions such as which ... ... middle of paper ... ...n the author diminishing the strong persuasiveness afforded by the logos and ethos in his argument because of his excess of pathos and tone, which is perceived as condescending. In the argument that college is not for everyone, Reeves establishes his ethos through both extrinsic and intrinsic support while maintaining clarity using the logos approach. Pathos, however, lacked the same amount of control. By using an excess amount of pathos while approaching rhetoric with a condescending tone, the author diminished the persuasiveness achieved by combining the techniques. This resulted in a limited audience due to the insulting nature of the closing remarks geared to the very audience he was trying to reach. Works Cited Reeves, W.J. "College Isn’t For Everyone." Conversations: Reading for Writers. Ed. Jack Selzer. New York City: Longman, 2005. 128-133. Print.
Rhetorical Précis: In Michelle Adams’s article, “Is College Worth It (2013),” explores the two side of college worthiness. She provided evidence to
It is clear that he uses pathos as his most potent tool for persuasion. Be it a way to depict gruesome imagery, a way to supplement his call to action, or as an enhancement for both his ethos and logos arguments, his strategic use of pathos is what drove the letter’s meaning to the hearts of
In Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, pathos, logos and ethos are evidently and effectively used to persuade the audience into believing Caesar was not ambitious and that he was an innocent man. Throughout the speech the citizens were easily persuaded, but Anthony’s intellectual speeches made the audience question and imagine what they have turned into. Anthony used these three rhetorical appeals to win back the citizens just like many people do today. The power of pathos, logos and ethos in a speech can change one mind in an instant and if successfully used can change a mind to be fully persuaded without confusion.
Some of the great philosophers known to man, Aristotle and Plato, wanted the ability to persuade. Aristotle wanted to be able to persuade people with a good amount of time, wisdom, and knowledge so that people could see the good of something. His student, Plato, wanted to be able to persuade people quickly and more affectively by persuading them in a very short time frame. So in order to quickly persuade people, Plato proposed an argument by expressing an idea and supporting it with rhetorical evidence. From Plato’s teaching came three types of rhetorical evidence; logos, which argues by logic; pathos, which argues by the use of sympathy and empathy; and ethos, which argues by the use of ethical appeals. Today the three types of rhetorical analysis can be found everywhere in everyday life. Just like Plato, ad writers who produce TV commercials want to persuade people in a short amount of time. These ad writers have to persuade the view point of their audience in about 30 seconds to a minute in time. In 2010, during Super Bowl XLIV, a commercial by Audi was premiered. This Audi commercial is a great example of the use of the three types of rhetorical evidence; logos, pathos, and ethos.
There are three ways that people used to try and persuade their audiences. The three ways were identified by Greek philosopher Aristotle, and they are known as ethos, logos, and pathos. They are three examples of rhetorical arguments. Ethos refers to how we view the speaker’s character. This means that if you believe that the character has good knowledge of the subject and good intentions along with good character, you are prone to believe what he is telling you. Logos uses inductive and deductive reasoning along with rationality to persuade the audience. Most speakers aren’t going to use logos alone to persuade the general audience. Pathos persuades the audience by playing with their emotions. The speaker will try to make you feel emotions such as anger, fear, hunger, sadness, pity, and happiness to influence your judgement.
Every day we are victims to persuasion whether anyone can notice it or not. Logos, pathos and ethos are the types of persuasion. Logos persuades by reason, pathos by appealing to emotion and ethos by the credibility of the author. The characters in The Iliad employ the use of these techniques to sway another character into doing or feeling something else.
Whether in business or casual communication, there are times when it is the goal of one or both parties to convince the other of a specific viewpoint. In such instances, one must be effective in presenting the view and why it should be valued over others. Robert Cialdini tells us that by following six principles attempts at persuasion can be made more effective (as cited by McLean, 2010). This paper will define the six principles and briefly discuss each of them. Then, an example will be provided, illustrating how they can be applied in context.
College is not for everyone, although, everyone should have some form of higher education. "Should everyone go to college?" is an essay meant to inform students of the pros and cons of going to college. Owens and Sawhill state that the cost of a college degree may not be worth the money that students put into furthering their education. In their article, Owens and Sawhill use three different rhetorical appeals; egos, logos, and pathos; to persuade the readers to think consciously about attending college. Their argument was effective because it forces the readers to look at the overall college experience in different aspects.
McCullough, intertwines logos and pathos to emphasize the importance of doing things for self–enrichment, instead of the established ideal of competition. These students are not the first ones, last ones, or only ones to graduate high school in Massachusetts. He lists, “no fewer than 3.2 million seniors are graduating about now from more than 37,000 high schools. That’s 37,000 valedictorians, 37,000 class presidents...2,185,967 pairs of Uggs”. He drives
In this example Lennon plays with our sympathy, telling stories of how Roberto was one of two hundred prisoners that were trying to get accepted into the college program that only seats twenty three. He ends with a quote from his mother “How you think is how you act”(Lennon 3). This saying by his mother, is comparing the inmates attitudes going into jail and how if educated how they can change when coming out. In this argument by John J. Lennon he uses a variety of pathos, logos and ethos writing methods in order to try and persuade the readers to agree with adding more college courses for inmates. Although the argument is very well written Lennon’s use of egos, pathos and logos are lacking. Which in turn allows the readers to not be persuaded towards his goal of increasing the amount of classes offered in
he evaluation of the overall rhetorical effectiveness for intended audience was a failure starting with the ethos of having no much credibility for the author, pathos, no real connection to emotion to aid the doctor, and not being able to see the real problem, and with the lack of logos to explain how to be able to obtain aid and help the student improve. As a result, in the editorial the authors had no success in persuading all the audience. For that reason, college students should be able to see the correct way to write their essay and the effective method for them to pass class with excellent essays.
Co-author of “They Say/I Say” handbook, Gerald Graff, analyzes in his essay “Hidden Intellectualism” that “street smarts” can be used for more efficient learning and can be a valuable tool to train students to “get hooked on reading and writing” (Graff 204). Graff’s purpose is to portray to his audience that knowing more about cars, TV, fashion, and etc. than “academic work” is not the detriment to the learning process that colleges and schools can see it to be (198). This knowledge can be an important teaching assistant and can facilitate the grasping of new concepts and help to prepare students to expand their interests and write with better quality in the future. Graff clarifies his reasoning by indicating, “Give me the student anytime who writes a sharply argued, sociologically acute analysis of an issue in Source over the student who writes a life-less explication of Hamlet or Socrates’ Apology” (205). Graff adopts a jovial tone to lure in his readers and describe how this overlooked intelligence can spark a passion in students to become interested in formal and academic topics. He uses ethos, pathos, and logos to establish his credibility, appeal emotionally to his readers, and appeal to logic by makes claims, providing evidence, and backing his statements up with reasoning.
Moore uses a great deal of data and logos strategies to alarm the reader. Michael Moore’s overall essay is based on his pathos arguments. He is highly irritated and in disbelief of the education system. The author uses one of the most common and easy to read strategy. First, he makes a logo standpoint and then supports his argument with pathos. He does this so that the reader is engaged and taken aback by his logo argument then is in agreement with his pathos argument that follows.
Studying a university degree is one of the biggest achievements of many individuals around the world. But, according to Mark Edmunson, a diploma in America does not mean necessarily studying and working hard. Getting a diploma in the United States implies managing with external factors that go in the opposite direction with the real purpose of education. The welcome speech that most of us listen to when we started college, is the initial prank used by the author to state the American education system is not converging in a well-shaped society. Relating events in a sarcastic way is the tone that the author uses to explain many of his arguments. Mark Edmunson uses emotional appeals to deliver an essay to the people that have attended College any time in their life or those who have been involved with the American education system.