Salem, NH: Ayer Company Publishers, 1990. Glathaar, Joseph T. Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers. New York: The Free Press Inc., 1990. O'Connor, Thomas. Civil War Boston: Homefront and Battlefield.
“Franklin County: Jacob Christy to Mary Jane Demus, August 10, 1864.” The Valley of the Shadow, August 10, 1864. http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/F3004. • Hargrove, Hondon B. Black Union Soldiers in the Civil War. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland, 1988. • Jordan, Ervin L. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia.
Abraham Lincoln’s resistance to expand slavery into the West created a long period of conflict that led up to the civil war. After Lincoln won the 1860 election, the official conflict was soon to begin. Before President Lincoln could even give his inaugural address seven states from the south declared their independence from the Union, and on March 4, 1861 The Confederate States of America was formed. When the Confederate army fired on Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 the American Civil War had begun. By the end of the civil war four more states would come to unite with the Confederacy, and more than six hundred thousand men would die on either side.
Douglass' mentor, William Lloyd Garrison, and Wendell Phil... ... middle of paper ... ...arrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Boston: Anti-Slavery Office, 1845. Henry Louis Gates, ed. The Classic Slave Narratives. New York: Mentor, 1987.
London: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Wilson, Keith. “Black Bands and Black Culture: A Study of Black Military Bands in the Union Army during the Civil War.” Australasian Journal of American Studies 9, no. 1 (July 1990): 31-37. Accessed April 5, 2014. http://jstor.or/stable/41054165.
In a letter to Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, in August 1862, Lincoln wrote: “My paramount object in this struggle is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing [any] slave I would do it…” (Selected Speeches 343 as qtd. in Tackach 44). Lincoln also refused to declare that slavery was the Civil War’s main focus because many Whites in the North and in the much-valued Border States would not agree with a war to free slaves since they believed Blacks were inferior to Whites (Wheeler 225-226). The political and military advantages of the Border States made Lincoln reluctant to proclaim the Civil War to be a war about slavery (Wheeler 225-226).
During his presidency, Lincoln was unpopular. Two main oppositional factions in 1864 were confederate sympathizers in the Border States and lower Midwest Peace Democrats, who believed that the Civil War was causing a decline the Northern economy, states’ rights, and civil liberties. Predominantly disagreeable to Northern Democrats were the two Lincoln policies of Emancipation and The Military Draft. Lincoln had issued a pilot proclamation, stating that he would free all slaves in Confederate land if the Confederacy didn’t surrender by January 1, 1863; they didn’t, so Emancipation Proclamation went into effect consequently freeing thousands of slaves as Union army trooped thru the South. Reacting to the congressional ratification... ... middle of paper ... ...oned to challenge Republicans in future contests.
Staudenraus: The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York, NY, 1961 C. Peter Riply at el. : African American Voices on Race, Slavery, and Emnancipation. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill & London, 1993, pp15-37. Carter G. Woodson: Negro Orators ansd Their Orations (New York, NY, 1925) and The Mind of the Negro (Washington, DC., 1926).
This spurred the southern General Robert E. Lee in 1865 to reopen the idea of using slaves as soldiers for the south. This idea had previously been trashed by legislators. One General Cobb of Georgia stated, "You cannot make soldiers of slaves....If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong." With Robert E. Lee being as respected as he was and the reality that the war was at a crises point for the Confederacy his statement on the use of Negro soldiers "We should employ them without delay," was heard and implemented. A month before Appomattox President Davis signed the "Negro Soldier Law" authorizing slave enlistments.
The Civil War is often thought of as white northerners and southerners fighting over the freedom of African American’s. African American soldiers would fight on both sides of the war. The eventual acceptance of African American’s and their contributions to the Union Army would be pivotal in the Unions success. African Americans were banned from joining the Union Army in the early part of the Civil War. President Lincoln feared that African Americans in the Army would persuade certain states, such as Missouri, to join the Confederacy.