The Psychological Effect of Racism
Racism is still a very prominent yet controversial topic in the United States today. Discrimination in the United States dates back to the 1500s when America was first founded. As generations passed, it has become a social norm to believe that darker skin tones are less desirable to society. The foundation of this country was built upon the false impression that Whites were superior to not just blacks, but all other ethnicities. From this, the idea of white privilege was derived and is still prevalent in society today. Those who are victims of discrimination are sometimes not aware of the psychological effect and the overall impact it can have on one’s life. The persistence of racism over generations has been in correlation to adversely affect the mental health of the victims economically, socially and in turn physically.
Historically, racial categorization has been imbedded in racism, and racial classification patterns have had a clear and unclear comparative ranking of various racial groups. Within the United States background, whites have always been at the top, blacks at the bottom, and other ethnicities amid. The socioeconomic disadvantage of African American people in the United States is the outcome of an extensive history of institutional racism and discrimination that has produced the current levels of detriment.
The framework of racism has enhanced the understanding of racial inequalities in health. By racism, an ideology of inferiority that is used to justify unequal treatment (discrimination) of members of groups defined as inferior, by both individuals and societal institutions. This idea of inferiority has led to the development of negative attitudes and beliefs towards raci...
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...ith financial stability a person is less likely to be stressed and also less likely to develop symptoms of depression caused by stress.
Race conscientiousness is present in today’s society, many harbor negative feelings towards African Americans on an unconscious level, which can have a negative impact on the mental health of the person who are victims of this discriminatory behavior. The unintentional expression of anti-black feelings is projected on to blacks as fear or discomfort with their presence. According to Gaertner and Dovidio, two psychology professors, proposed “the biased judgments against African Americans result of childhood socialization of the dominant racial biases in society and from the typical way in which individuals categorize people into social groups rather than expend limited cognitive resources to judge each person individually” (Levin 2). I
In the level of institutionalized racism, it is what all community organizers strive to overcome. This form of racism entails the power and access to materials that everyone should be able to obtain. When there is racism involved, there is a level of differentiation in the access that each race is entitled to. For example, Blacks have less access to nutritional food and health care when the live in an urban residential area. These inequities are the result of an institutionalized difference between racial groups and it may lead to health disparities. Dr. Jones believes that the root of association between socioeconomic status and race in the United States is in direct correlation to this form of racism.
Both authors have taken the deliberative to uncover the unconscious phenomenon that controls and affects how people interact, make perceptions, assumptions and even decisions in life. Most of these biases that people tend to have against other races are shaped and reinforced by one’s surroundings and experiences. It is therefore important expose these biases so as to grow as a society and extinguish the white privileges. Unless America is ready to face the truth about the existing biases, racial tensions and incidences will continue to
Racism has been a huge problem throughout the United States and every individual struggles with the unproductive messages of racism that is being passed on through from larger societies. Many people suffered from this in silence and it is what hits the hardest on children and youth who lack the life experience to understa...
America is considered to be a county where white privilege is unearned, where social status is dignified and the whites are highly educated. In a society that favors one group, there are some similarities between the “people of color”, like Asian Americans and African Americans, who share an identity of struggle. Broad physical similarities, such as skin color, are now used efficiently, if also often inaccurately, to identify the difference between racial groups. However, economic, political and social forces in the US work to keep these groups separated from the privileged society.
In the United States, racial discrimination has a lengthy history, dating back to the biblical period. Racial discrimination is a term used to characterize disruptive or discriminatory behaviors afflicted on a person because of his or her ethnic background. In other words, every t...
Stereotypes are created in today’s society for people who are deemed as different, not dominant, or unprivileged. Those who do not fall into a stereotype are often seen as privileged. One of the largest, and longest lived stereotype is race, specifically those who are African American. It is seen as a privilege to be viewed and treated as a white person, while those who fall into any other race are viewed and treated as being different. Recently, I have become very aware of difficulties facing the minorities. Before I witnessed an incident, I had been blind to the fact that there are privileges and so many stereotypes in today’s society. This blindness that I was experiencing, however, “is an aspect of privilege itself, … ‘the luxury of obliviousness’”
Discrimination has always been there between blacks and whites. Since the 1800s where racial issues and differences started flourishing till today, we can still find people of different colors treated unequally. “[R]acial differences are more in the mind than in the genes. Thus we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the socio-political agenda of the dominant group”(Heewon Chang,Timothy Dodd;2001;1).
There exists symbolic racism and statistical discrimination, which play into society’s biases and put black people at a disadvantage. Symbolic racism suggests black people have different social values and statistical discrimination explains the hostility towards black people as a group. The relationship between symbolic racism and statistical discrimination is that the two forms of racism feed into each other. In having experiences with a few black individuals, the person judging them might subconsciously generalize all black people based on that experience, which is statistical discrimination. This leads to symbolic racism because they now perceive black people as a group to be different. This is evident in the hiring practices of some employers, both white and black, who have explained their biases against hiring black people. Employers cite issues based on their observations with black employees, claiming that when some of their black employees “talk black,” customers are driven away, or that employers have had experiences with employees who were lazy, leading to a general distrust of the commitment of black employees. It is not wrong for the employers’ experiences to shape their perceptions, but generalized perceptions have put black people as a group in an undesirable
Although critical race theory was being recognized as a law movement it has spread to other disciplines. Critical race theory is define “as a paradigm used to generate insights into the contemporary racial predicament, exposing how racial stratification is more powerful or enduring than is initially apparent” (Brown, 2003, p. 294). Critical race theory explains how the United States uses race in their law and policies and rejects the belief that as long as everyone is able to get along it will automatically eliminate racism and the stratification of race (Brown, 2003). Furthermore, critical race theory talks about how power, oppression, limited accesses to resources for ethnic minorities has been camouflaged in our society by the white privilege class (Brown, 2003). Critical race theory will give a clear and broad understanding that racism is embedded in mental health care system, where it will allow social workers to better understand the misdiagnosis of ethnic
Willie, Charles V., Bernard M. Kramer, and Bertram S. Brown, eds. Racism Racism Racism and Mental Health. N.p.: Univerity of Pittsburgurgh Press, 1973. Print. Contemporary Community Health Series.
Racist and racism are provocative words in American society. To some, they become curse words. They are descriptive words of reality that cannot be denied. Some people believe that race is the primary determinant of human abilities and capacities and behave as if racial differences produce inherent superiorities. People of color are often injured by these judgements and actions whether they are directly or indirectly racist. Just as individuals can act in racist ways, so can institutions. Institutions can be overtly or inherently racist. Institutions can also injure people. The outcome is nonetheless racist, if not intentional (Randall).
Racism is increasingly seen as a potent cause towards the health of ethnic minorities. Increased interest in this issue has led a growing number of researchers to investigate the correlation of racism and health outcomes. Ethnicity, a socially constructed concept, sees individuals with a common background or culture belonging to a particular group. This results in individuals using ethnicity to represent themselves in relation to others, especially in the presence of other ethnic individuals. However, racism arises when external gestures are made from individuals who show superiority and preference for their own cultural background, due to biological descent. Racism is a problem faced by many ethnic minority groups, resulting in inequalities that lead towards negative health outcomes.
According to the institute of Medicine (IOM), racism is a problem in the health care system, that is, the difference between the quality of health care received by minorities and non-minorities is due to racism. IOM is a nonprofit organization that advises the federal government and the public on science policy. It released a report that on average, minorities receive a lower quality of care, even when factors such as income and type of health insurance are accounted for. The report by IOM states that racial stereotypes and prejudice are the cause of the health care disparities. The article by IOM points ...
Segregation has and still affects perceptions of Blackness inside and outside the Black community by making Black people see themselves as White people see them. Many of Black people have accepted the fallacy that they were inferior to White people at a young age, and Whites learned that Blacks were lower then Whites at a young age as well.
The Association of Black Psychologist (ABP) (2013) defines colorism as skin-color stratification. Colorism is described as “internalized racism” that is perceived to be a way of life for the group that it is accepted by (ABP 2013). Moreover, colorism is classified as a persistent problem within Black American. Colorism in the process of discriminatory privileges given to lighter-skinned individuals of color over their darker- skinned counterparts (Margret Hunter 2007). From a historical standpoint, colorism was a white constructed policy in order to create dissention among their slaves as to maintain order or obedience. Over the centuries, it seems that the original purpose of colorism remains. Why has this issue persisted? Blacks have been able to dismantle the barriers faced within the larger society of the United States. Yet, Blacks have failed to properly address the sins of the past within the ethnic group. As a consequence of this failure, colorism prevails. Through my research, I developed many questions: Is it right that this view remain? How does valuing an individual over another cause distribution to the mental health of the victims of colorism? More importantly, what are the solutions for colorism? Colorism, unfortunately, has had a persisted effect on the lives of Black Americans. It has become so internalized that one cannot differentiate between the view of ourselves that Black Americans adopted from slavery or a more personalized view developed from within the ethnicity. The consequences of this internalized view heightens the already exorbitant mental health concerns within the Black community, but the most unfortunate aspect of colorism is that there is contention on how the issue should be solved.