Though social problems affect a wide variety of people from all races, classes, and cultures; minorities, specifically African Americans, encounter social problems on a multi-dimensional basis. Poverty, employment rates, discrimination, and other social problems strike African Americans in such a way that it is nearly impossible to separate them; each individual has different background, socially and physically, that would determine in which order his or her social problems need to be solved. Impoverished blacks in the inner city may have difficulty finding or keeping jobs, while others may have jobs, but face troubles with work discrimination that prevent them from moving upward .Underemployment, workplace inequalities, and unbalanced medical attention are three closely related social problems that, if ameliorated together, could increase upward mobility, decrease poverty levels, and tighten the lifespan gaps for not only blacks, but also other minority groups. The purpose of this paper is to show what effects these three problems have for blacks. Ties Between Racial and Workplace Discrimination Because workplace discrimination is closely tied with underemployment and unemployment, it’s important to know why blacks continue to obtain lower positions and promotions than their white co-workers. In The Social Psychological Costs of Racial Segmentation, Tyrone A. Forman discusses explanations of the separation of middle class African Americans in the workplace. The amount of blacks and whites co-working has grown, but blacks are often given the jobs with the lower prestige and rarely any chance of promotion. Despite increasing numbers of middle-class blacks working the same types of jobs, African Americans are primarily segmented... ... middle of paper ... ...ging feat. The most plausible answer seems to lessen workplace discrimination, thus increasing the number of African Americans with healthcare to allow better health. Works Cited Deitch, E. A., Barsky, A., Butz, R., Chan, S., Brief, A. P., & Bradley, J. C. (2003). Suble yet significant: The existence and impact of everyday racial discrimination in the workplace. Human Relations, 56(11), 1299-1324. Dressler, W. W. (1993). Health in the african american community: Accounting for health inequalities. Medical anthropology quarterly, 7(4), 325-345. Forman, T. A. (2003). The social psychological costs of racial segmentation in the workplace:a study of african americans' well-being. Journal of health and social behavior, 44(3), 332-352. Jewelll, N., & Russell, K. (1992). Current health status of african americans. Journal of community health nursing, 9(3), 161-169.
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The African American Almanac, 7th edition. ed., L. Mpho Mabanda. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1997.
Even though the United States government was already making improvements to the healthcare system, they excluded African Americans from all the progress that they made. Most believed that African Americans brought it upon themselves and that they inherited their sicknesses, and diseases. “Richmond's city officials were also aware that the high death rate of the city's African Americans, usually about twice that of whites, inflated the average for the city as a whole and negatively affected the health of all of Richm ” (Hoffman, 2001, p.177). Officials in Richmond Virginia first started to notice at how bad their death rates were when other states started to comment on it. African Americans made up the majority population in Richmond and even when they brought attention to problems they were excluded from the solutions, and the government was mostly worried about how the state looked overall. Eventually the government did have to step in and help them some. “Only in those programs administered by the Health Department's nurses did Richmond's African Americans receive anything like an equitable share ofthe benefits ofthe city's conversion to modern public health policies and practices, and even practices, and even there, the results were limited ” (Hoffman, 2001, p 188). Africans Americans were helped eventually but at a very limited amount compared to
Across the nation, millions of Americans of all races turn on the television or open a newspaper and are bombarded with images of well dressed, articulate, attractive black people advertising different products and representing respected companies. The population of black professionals in all arenas of work has risen to the point where seeing a black physician, attorney, or a college professor are becoming more a common sight. More and more black people are holding positions of respect and authority throughout America today, such as Barack Obama, Colin Powell, Condelezza Rice and many other prominent black executives. As a result of their apparent success, these black people are seen as role models for many Americans, despite their race. However, these groups of black people are exceptions to the rule and consist of only a tiny fraction of all black Americans. These black people in turn actually help to reinforce the inequality of black Americans by allowing Americans of other races to focus on their success. A common thought is, "They made it, why can't you do the same?" The direct and truthful answer to that question is Racism.
In this paper, I examine the ways in which living in poverty negatively impacts the health of African-Americans, based on the ethnographic family history and study of health care policy recounted by Laurie Kaye Abraham in Mama Might Be Better Off Dead: The Failure of Health Care in Urban America. I will focus first on the barriers that poverty creates to health care on a structural and personal level. I will then discuss how the unique stresses of poverty construct specific behavioral and emotional patterns which reinforce systemic problems to exacerbate poor health outcomes.
Section I: One of Laurie Abraham goals was to present an accurate reflection of what poor and chronically ill African Americans encounter when they do not have access to the best health care our society has to offer. She wanted to report the most accurate story of the impact that social policy had once it hit the street level operations. She also wanted to provide a qualitative description of the problems linked to the lack of access to care by deeply illustrating a deeper understanding of what it really meant to the poor when they lacked adequate access to care. Abraham wanted to provide criticism of our social policies such as Medicaid and Medicare and how they affect individuals such as the Barnes family. She also wanted to translate the
African Americans face a multidimensional health care crisis that affects the young or old, rich or poor. Too many African Americans are uninsured or underinsured. The elderly cannot afford long-term health care leaving the family to care for them. Health care cost is constantly rising and are out of control, reform is the only way out.
Health disparity is one of the major concerns in the provision of quality care and access to healthcare which directly the life expectancy of the nation as about ethnicity and race. However, describing the health outcomes or status of an ethnic group in the population would help in a better evaluation of the disparities that occur within minority groups in our society. “Racial/ethnic disparities in health and quality of and access to health care are a well-documented and persistent problem. Across many indicators of health, access to care, and health care quality, racial/ethnic minorities fare worse than whites, and each population faces specific challenges”(James et al., 2017, p. 1).
Health Disparities and Racism is an ongoing problem that is reflected among society. Health is when an individual is physically, mentally and social well being is complete. However health disparities seems to be a social injustice within various ethnicities. Health disparities range from age, race, income, education and many other things. Even though we realize health disparities are more noticeable depending on the region of country where they live in. Racism is one of the most popular factors, for why it’s known that people struggle with health.
William Julius Wilson creates a thrilling new systematic framework to three politically tense social problems: “the plight of low-skilled black males, the persistence of the inner-city ghetto, and the fragmentation of the African American family” (Wilson, 36). Though the conversation of racial inequality is classically divided. Wilson challenges the relationship between institutional and cultural factors as reasons of the racial forces, which are inseparably linked, but public policy can only change the racial status quo by reforming the institutions that support it.
Townsend, P., Whitehead, M. and Davidson, N. (eds) (1992) Inequalities in Health: the Black Report and the health divide, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Historically, racial categorization has been imbedded in racism, and racial classification patterns have had a clear and unclear comparative ranking of various racial groups. Within the United States background, whites have always been at the top, blacks at the bottom, and other ethnicities amid. The socioeconomic disadvantage of African American people in the United States is the outcome of an extensive history of institutional racism and discrimination that has produced the current levels of detriment.