The Need for an Explanation of Human Memory Discuss the need for an explanation of human memory, which proposes that memory is a set of stages, rather than a single process. This essay is going to discuss the need for an explanation of human memory, which proposes that memory is a set of stages rather than a single process. Flanagan (1997) defines memory as "the mental function of retaining data, the storage system holding the data, and the data which is retained." It is evident from reviewing the literature that an explanation of memory as a set of stages proves to be more understandable than as a single process, the theories of memory all providing information about how memory is structured and organised and the findings from the research studies inevitably pointing in the direction of memory existing as a set of stages rather than a single process. Therefore these are the areas which are to be outlined in this essay in order to understand the need to explain human memory as a set of stages. The nature of memory can be explained as a set of stages that are necessary but not sufficient for memory to have taken place. These involve "input" -registering or encoding information, where a memory trace is formed from translating the sensory data, "storage" which is either temporary or permanent and "output" which involves retrieval - memories would be useless unless they could be retrieved. It is these stages that form the fundamental characteristics of the process of memory and in order for this to occur it is necessary for the data to become engaged in the memory structure. Memory structure can be separated into three distinct categories, sensory memory (input store) where the sensory data remains unchanged in the mind fo... ... middle of paper ... ...need for an explanation based on stages. In conclusion, the question posed was to "discuss the need for an explanation of human memory, which proposes that memory is a set of stages, rather than a single process". When trying to discuss this need it became apparent that the fact that memory is not a concrete article made it all the more important that it was explained as a set of stages. This may be because as a set of stages, the complex structure of memory is all the more understandable and the theories of memory put together a "story" of how the memory process may work. However, most if not all theories or models describe rather than explain the memory process (providing a guideline) therefore the empirical evidence is really the only key in explaining why memory is a set of stages rather than a single process and it is from these that the " need " is derived.
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Memory is an important and active system that receives information. Memory is made up of three different stages sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory. According to the power point presentation, sensory memory refers to short storage of memory that allows an individual to process information as it occurs. Short term memory refers to memory that is only available for a limited time. It is information that is held for seconds or sometimes even minutes. Long term memory refers to memory that is stored for a long period of time and it has an unlimited capacity with the ability to hold as much information as possible. Retrieval is key and it allows individuals to have memories. Episodic memory refers to memory for events that we
The cognitive level of analysis focuses on how mental processes such as perception, language, memory and attention influence human behaviour. Memory is an active information-processing system that receives, organises, stores and recovers information. Recall can be defined as the action or ability to remember something that was learned or experienced. Cued (or contextual based) recall refers to the way information is presented, or the situation in which information is encoded and retrieved, then recalled when the same context is presented (McLeod, 2008). Evidence on this method of memory recall indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval.
Craik and Lockhart (1972), proposed a 'conceptual framework of memory', which accentuates the importance at which levels of new information is processed. They further emphasised that the 'depth' in which we process information whilst learning it determines how it is stored in LTM. According to Craik and Lockhart (1972), memories and information are processed better in LTM if they're semantically encoded, processed and stored. If meaning (semantic) is processed during learning then the information is more likely to be stored in LTM, in contrary to if there is no meaning added during the process. More so, for the information that is stored in our memory, there is a continuum that illustrates
The word memory can be defined in many ways depending on the field that the term memory is used in. To start of, the most commonly used definition for the term memory is the name given to the human’s ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the brain. It is a sum of what we remember in total and it enables us to learn and adapt from previous experiences and to build relationships. Etymologically, the modern English word memory has originated from the passed down Latin word memoria and memor which means mindful and remembering. In neurological and psychological terms memory is simply classified as a set of encoded neural connections in the brain. Since the development of the computer in the 1940s, the word memory is also used to describe the ability of a compu...
The main functional division among memories is between so-called ""declarative" and "procedural" memories. The former consists of what are termed "episodic" or "semantic" memories. Declarative memories are formed by events, and are brought back in specific contexts and with distinct meanings. "Procedural Memories," on the other hand, include cla...
Before going into depth of studying, we need to understand what the human memory is. The human memory is a system involved in the process of maintaining and processing of information over time (Matlin, 2005). The human memory is active, whereby it has the ability to receive, to process, store, change, organize and recall information (Coon & Mitterer, 2012). Without memory, we would not be able to remember what we have done in the past, nor how to operate in the present or future. Therefore, when it comes to developing an ideal study method, memory plays the most important role.
The human body is a complex structure. The brain being the most complex organ has the most work to do. The human memory consists of a process in which memories are stored and remembered. According to Intelegen Inc., there is this unique process of Memory in which the process only involves three stages. In the stages of this process, the memory is formed, retained, and retrieved. There are three stages of the five different types of Memory; the three stages are encoding, storage and retrieval.
Memory can be declarative or procedural. A declarative memory would be concerned with the experiences and facts, while a procedural memory is related to skills. A declarative memory is further classified into episodic memory and semantic memory. An episodic memory is based on awareness of a previous experience in a particular situation at a particular time. It develops throughout childhood. A semantic memory is concerned with the factual knowledge about the world (Tulving 1983,1993,2002). The article initially explains the cognitive neuroscience of the development of the episodic memory formation. Behavioral evidence indicates an episodic memory emerges from childhood through adulthood. Developments in cognitive functions such as speed of
Memory is a fundamental component of daily life. We rely on it so heavily, that life without memory would be close to impossible. Our very survival depends on our ability to remember who we are, who others are, and our past experiences. Memory allows us to remember our family vacation from when we were a kid, directions on how to get to the grocery store, or who the first president of the United States was. Psychologists define memory as “the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information” (Feldman, 2015, p. 205). Encoding can be compared to a computer’s keyboard, because it is the initial process in which information is recorded in a usable form (Feldman, 2015, p. 205). Storage is similar to a computer’s hard drive, because it is the maintenance of material for future use (Feldman, 2015, p. 205). Lastly, retrieval can be compared to a computer’s software, because it is the location and recovery of stored information (Feldman, 2015, p. 205).
How can you be satisfied without remembering the significant memories in life? Memory is the way we function through our day-to-day lives. Without memory we wouldn’t be here today, it is something that you develop to learn overtime. Memory is fascinating and can function and improve in many ways. It is astonishing how we can remember a certain taste, smell, sounds, and objects over a long and short period of time. The memory is very complex and consists of many components. In this essay I will be informing you on how the human memory is critical in our everyday lives.
Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM) (in Passer et al., 2009). Although to some, the multi store model provided an adequate explanation of memory processes, it was regarded as being too simplistic since short-term and long- term memories were far more complicated than originally thought (in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). In essence, the multi-store model stresses the importance of rehearsal to long term memory. While rehearsal is crucial as a means of transferring information from the STM to the LTM, this is not necessarily always the case (in Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968 in Passer et al., 2009). To this, sceptics challenged the idea of information being transferred from the STM to the LTM by active rehearsal since subsequent research has indicated that information had the potential to be stored in the LTM without it being actively rehearsed (in Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). In response to the difficulties and weaknesses presented in the multi-store model, an alternative model attempting to explain memory processes in a more precise manner was developed by Craik & Lockhart (1972 in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Their theory of levels of processing proposes that different methods of encoding information into the memory will subsequently have an effect on recollection of information (in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). According to the levels of process...
Throughout this course, I’ve learned about numerous different concepts and ideas involving the field of psychology, but the area I took the most interest in was the involvement of memory in psychology. During this course, I’ve learned that our memories are what identifies us during our youth and when we reach full adulthood and without those memories, we are lost as to who we are, and the history that defines us as well. I also learned something very interesting, those memories that leave an everlasting footprint in our minds can also assist us memorizing new content as well. The concept associated with this theory is called “The Memory Palace” or the “The Method of Loci”.
Learning to tie shoes and ride a bike requires the encoding, storing, and retrieving of past observations of the procedure. With a lot of practice, children master these skills so well that they are able to remember them the rest of their lives. Memory is the storing of information over time. It is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place. As a process, memory refers to the "dynamic mechanism associated with the retention and retrieval of information about past experiences" (Sternberg 260). We use our memory about the past to help us understand the present. The study or memory in psychology is used in different ways, as well as there are many different ways to study how memory works in humans. In psychology there are many tasks used to measure memory, and different types of memory storages that human's use, such as sensory storing, or short term storing. There are also a lot of techniques that humans use to improve their memory, which they can use to learn, such as mnemonic devices. All these things can be classified as important issues in the study of human memory and ways of learning.