Khokhar 1 Umber Khokhar Carolyn Crumpler 8:20 World History 10 March 2014 Queen Isabella of Castile Queen Isabella ruled Spain in the Medieval Era. After the death of her brother, Henry IV, Isabella was named Queen of Castile. When she came to power in the 1460s, a civil war had begun. Isabella married one of the most well-known royals, Ferdinand, who was the Prince of Aragon. Her marriage put Spain on its way to a national unity by uniting the regions of Castile and Aragon.
This was evident in their patronage of leading Artists such as Michelangelo and of renowned Teachers such as Galileo. The sphere of influence the Medici’s enjoyed also extended to the political arena, which happened to be heavily influenced by the Catholic Church at the time. The Medici’s were able to capitalize on the power of the Church and through this influence and the use of “amici degli amici” or of mutual favors from “friends of friends” the Medici family was able to usher in a new Italian era: the Renaissance (Medici). While not the only wealthy and ambitious family in Florence, the Medici’s were driven in their pursuits and did not achieve their success in the noblest of ways. Giovanni di Bicci de’Medici, the Patriarch of the Medici Dynasty, founded and controlled one of the most influential businesses in Italy, the Medici Bank.
Piero’s younger brother Giovanni was the reason for the Medici family to able to return to Florence. By the early 1520s Giulio de’ Medici Son of Lorenzo. Abdicated power in 1523 to become Pope Clement VII. Lorenzo’s great-great-grandson Cosimo (1519-1574) became duke of Florence in 1537 and his descendants would rule as grand dukes into the 1700s. The Medici family were beneficial to the renaissance because they helped established Florence as a significant city in Europe, they were patrons of arts and culture, they produced 4 popes in an era where religion was very important.
Machiavelli is chief interest of his “professional life was foreign policy, and… the subject bulks large in The Prince.”(Adams). Humanistic ideals were the ruling intellectual force of the time. Machiavelli’s family was not either rich or poor, but they were supporters of the city’s leading humanists. Born in Florence in 1469 and living until 1527, Niccolo Machiavelli experienced the height of the Italian Renaissance-a period that produced horrible scandals and the establishment of foreign domination. In 1498, the year that Florence became a republic, Machiavelli was awarded a position in the government as a clerk.
The Renaissance period (14th -17th centuries) saw a revival of learning of the ancient Greek and Roman culture. This period emphasized reason and the individual, contrary to the medieval period when faith and salvation was the main concern of the people. During the Renaissance period, individuals focused their attention on secular society and its pleasures, such as the arts, literature, and science. This new way of thinking was called Humanism, a system of education that emphasizes classical literature and Latin and Greek. In comparing Florence and England, the humanistic ideas developed differently.
A rediscover of their history and recognition of early Greek philosophers changed the way that the influential families and Princes, in Italy, considered themselves. Their way of thinking of the Devine and need to promote one’s own aspirations through sponsorship of the arts, as well as, civic duty became not only fashionable but important to progress in the city states. Although Donatello’s David and Botticelli’s Primavera are master pieces in their own right, their influence on future generations of artists cannot be ignored. The spark that ignited the fire which we call the Renaissance was a transformation of societies thinking and values to a Humanistic approach to one duties to society and the church. These two works are a reflection of the changing attitudes which would eventually change all of
Machiavellie advises his rulers to be kind only of it suited their purposes. Otherwise, he warned, it is better to be feared than loved. Machiavelli is considered one of the great early modern analyzers of political power. Born in Florence in 1469 and living until 1527, Niccolo Machiavelli experienced what we now consider the height of the Italian Renaissance-a period that produced some of Italy's greatest achievements in the arts and sciences, but that also produced horrible scandals and the establishment of foreign domination over the peninsula (Microsoft Encarta 99). He grew up during the reign of the Medici family, and he learned to read and write in Latin while he studied the classics.
Edited by Julia Mary Cartwright Ady. Boston: Dutton And Company, 1905. Meyer, Edith Patterson. First Lady of the Renaissance: A Biography of Isabella d'Este. Boston: Little, Brown And Company, 1970.
Even as wise and intelligent as Charlotte is, she still identifies with the ideas of her time about marriage. Charlotte, serving as a basis of time’s views allows the reader a glimpse into the institution of marriage in the Regency Era. Charlotte more than emphasizes just how radical Elizabeth was for her time, since she was willing to wait for the perfect man rather than settle. As a contrast, she helps Austen create a unique relationship in Darcy and Elizabeth. Austen disproves Charlotte’s and the general society’s pragmatic belief in a likely unhappy marriage.