The theory was further analyzed and developed by Melanie Klein, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Based on the theory, the psychodynamic therapy evolved to help patients through psychoanalysis. With time other therapies like individual, group and family therapy evolved to offer treatment by understanding the present day complexities in more detail. The main aim of the therapy is self –awareness through identifying the various influences of many past events in life. The therapies are continuously evolving since it was introduced by Freud to help in solving a variety of psychological disorders within people.
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He started to use methods of free association to delve into the patient's sub-conscious. By assessing the patient's reactions to the analyst's suggestions, Freud saw that the analyst could help the patient become consciously aware of his repressed childhood conflicts and impulses. By interpreting the patient's dreams, the analyst can provide an insight into the patient's conflicts as well. The therapist's interpretations of the patient's free associations and dreams are known as psychoanalysis. Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, however, does have its problems.
Description of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral treatment developed by Marsha M. Linehan for the treatment of complex, difficult-to-treat mental disorders. Originally, DBT was developed to treat individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; Carson-Wong, Rizvi, & Steffel, 2013; Scheel, 2000). However, DBT has evolved into a treatment for multi-disordered individuals with BPD. In addition, DBT has been adapted for the treatment of other behavioral disorders involving emotional dysregulation, for example, substance abuse, binge eating, and for settings, such as inpatient and partial hospitalization. Dimeff and Linehan (2001) described five functions involved in comprehensive DBT treatment.
A Brief Comparison of Historical Paths for the Clinical and Counselling Streams of Psychology The current practices of the clinical and counselling psychological streams are not entirely dissimilar as both are concerned with the application of psychotherapy, education, research, and instruction (Mayne, Norcross, & Sayette, 2000; Norcross, 2000). Clinical psychology is primarily concerned with the assessment, treatment, and study of populations who experience severe mental illness (Bechtoldt, Campbell, Norcross, Wyckoff, & Pokrywa, 2000; Norcross, 2000) clinical psychologists mostly employ behavioral and psychoanalytic theoretical orientations when treating clients (Norcross, 2000). In contrast, counselling psychologists generally aim to support people who, while not typically suffering from severe mental illness, need assistance in overcoming the emotions associated with traumas such as loss of employment, marital dissatisfaction, loss of friend or family member, addiction (Geldard & Geldard, 2012; Gladding, 2013). Primarily they employ client-centered and humanistic methods of theoretical orientation (Geldard & Geldard, 2012; Gladding, 2013; Norcross, 2000). Many clinical psychologists choose to employ a variety of theoretical orientations depending on factors such as setting and the type of mental illness they are treating (Gabbard, 2005; Kemp, 2014).
Fundamentals of counseling: Houghton Mifflin Boston. Saporta, J. (2000, October). Psychodynamic psychotherapy for PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(10), 787; discussion 788.