Postmodern counseling approaches have begun to challenge the paradigms of modernistic counseling theories. Modern theories emphasize the use of empirically validated treatment approaches to psychotherapy. The modernistic therapy perspective endorses the premise that psychological problems are the result of disturbances in cognitive processes. The focus of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is on helping clients to examine and restructure their core beliefs in order to reorganize one’s behavior. Postmodern approaches to therapy, however, stress the importance of context in people’s social and interpersonal world.
Although CBT is often referred to as a unitary treatment, it is actually a diverse collection of complex and subtle interventions that must each be mastered and understood from the social learning perspective (Reinecke, Dattilio, & Freeman, 2003). According to Graham (2005), CBT aims to change a patient’s unhealthy behaviour through examining assumptions behind the thought patterns (cognitive restruction) and also through using behaviour therapy techniques. In CBT, therapist and patient work with each other to identify the thoughts that may cause distress, and the therapist employs behavioural therapy techniques to modify the resulting behaviour. It aims to address patients’ certain fundamental core beliefs (schemas) that lead to negative influences on their behaviour and functioning (Rufer et al, 2000). CBT is the treatment option for some mental disorders, such as depression, dissociative identity disorder, eating disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, hypochondriasis, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (Clark, 1986).
There are two types of therapy in CBT, cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. The dissatisfaction with psychoanalytical approaches led to the birth of behavioral therapy. Eventually, there was a need to test hypotheses, that is when cognitive therapy joined behavioral therapy forming CBT. In CBT clinicians believe that psychopathology starts with an event. After the event takes place a person develops thoughts and feelings about the event, their thoughts and feelings about the event is the rational for their behavior which is the action.
1.1 Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a counselling model based greatly on talking therapy. It focuses on peoples underlying thoughts and past experiences, and how they influence current habits and behaviours. CBT tries to correct these and learn alternative ways of processing information to alter the undesired behaviour and/or habits. This is done through a combination of cognitive therapy (looking at the ways and things you think) and behavioural therapy (looking at the things you do). Ellis (1957, 1962) was one of the first to use Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) which is a type of cognitive therapy that focuses on an outcome of changing irrational beliefs into more rational ones.
The consequences in cognitive therapy are reinforcements in behavioral theory. Meichenbaum (2000) found that cognitions can act as conditioners of behavior, which influences behavior change. Clients can be helped to restructure their cognitions, which can result in behavior
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy has its foundations in two distinctive therapeutic theories, Cognitive Therapy and Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive Therapy (CT) believes that thoughts, feelings and behaviour are connected. CT states and an individual with help; can identify an issue that is causing a behavioural or an emotional response and correcting that thinking to achieve a desired outcome. Behavioural Therapy believes that individual’s behaviour is due to conditioning during the early years of life and as such can be altered with conscious awareness. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy is a combination of both of these theories and is based on an individual’s own history of thought an... ... middle of paper ... ...he therapy is over.
An extensive use of quantitative research methods was employed in order to study the risky-shift phenomena. In fact, the tool of research that was applied to conduct the studies described in this essay was the Choice-Dilemma Questionnaire, ... ... middle of paper ... ...& Baron, R. S. Is social comparison irrelevant for producing choice shifts? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1977, 13, 303-314. Seymour, F. Risky shift in a naturalistic setting. Journal of Personality, 1972, 1, 38-40.
Address the key assumptions and definitions of the theory. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, or CBT, is a type of psychotherapy founded by Aaron T. Beck. It is a type of talk-therapy that is done with a therapist and a client, or in group therapy. A key assumption of CBT is this cause and effect relationship between thoughts and behavior. It focuses on the interrelated relationships between thoughts, feelings and behavior.
It is through the foundation of psychology that the educator is able to understand the student, and thereby effectively tailor their practices to the student, as w... ... middle of paper ... ...on is achieved is different as the context of life and learning are different between adults and other learners. Applying New Learning to Practice The position of the adult is unique, and each individual adult likewise has a unique position. To optimize the learning environment for the adult, it is thereby the prerogative of the adult educator to effectively quantify the position of their students. While common processes may be utilized to provide the foundation for the course, through the investment of additional individualized attention, those unique psychological barriers in place for a given student may be effectively identified and ultimately overcome. Adults, while having largely completed their physical development, may nonetheless continue to grow cognitively, underlining the central role of developmental psychology in the field of adult education.
Schemas act as a filter as they process experiences and current info, thus shaping the client’s thinking and often time fostering cognitive errors (Knapp & Beck, 2008). Therefore, in relation to an emotional and behavioral reaction, the core beliefs influence the intermediate beliefs, which then shape the automatic thoughts that lead to the