Breakthroughs in technology throughout the twentieth century similarly morphed the institution of the American presidency. Embracing and adjusting to changing technology is a key attribute of the modern presidency, for the use proper use of technology makes the presidency appear strong. While mass media was an available medium during the presidency of Herbert Hoover, it was not effectively used until the Roosevelt administration (Thompson, 9/11/2014). The use of technology has enabled presidents to effectively address the nation, developing the modern presidency’s paternalistic role, in both times of crisis as well as presidential elections. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s use of the radio to address the nation during the Great Depression and World War II demonstrates the paternalistic use of media in the modern presidency, creating a stronger connection to the American people.
In this chapter, one the one hand, it mainly analyzed new media cannot change the natural of contemporarily policy, but it recognized government is stepping into an information and digital era. The growing of new media industry altered the communication mode between government and citizen, on the other hand, in order to monitor, contemporary policy start to establish more policies for the new media in the seventh chapter. First of all, the main point in the first chapter in the book is ‘interactivity-new media, politics and society’ is media industry and life of citizen has been changed in the digital age. The traditional media industry has been experienced transformation and the fusion in the face of the appearance of new media. Large number of traditional media company bankrupted in this media revolution, but some of them survived by their positive coping and positive transformation.
Morgan, in an attempt to study the role property has played in shaping social structures throughout history, has concluded that the influences property has had on reshaping societies and vice versa can teach the historian many things about both the society being studied and the environment in which it strove to survive. To Morgan, the "germ" of the institution of property slowly infected many different societies in many different parts of the world. His teleological approach states that due to the "unity of mankind" various technological innovations, which gave rise to the ever-growing availability of property, allowed social change to occur in many areas of the globe independently. Every area, went through its own version of evolution in which the importance of wealth grew at varying rates. This discovery leads Morgan to believe that while the past was unified in its variation, it is the future which must presently be addressed.
Indeed, popular culture is also afforded power and agency within society, as it can determine common and accepted aspects of a national and global culture. John Thompson (1995, p4) argues that the “communication media” holds significant power. He argues that the media possesses considerable influence in modern society, therefore providing the media with significant agency (Thompson, 1995, p10). Thompson (1995, p5) argues that the communication media has been a powerful force behind social interaction and relationships, formulating new “ways of relating to others and to oneself” (Thompson, 1995, p4). Indeed, in the ‘Digital Age’, Thompson’s argument can be compared to the power of media in the world of the Internet, highlighting the formation of new social interactions in a place in which individuals do not have to be physically present to communicate and debate.
Even the media had to adapt to the growing spatial mobility of the people and so the challenge was to find a new mean of communication which was able to make information available wherever you are. First scientific steps towards an electronic media were made at the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi invented the transmitting antenna, which made primitive forms... ... middle of paper ... ...r der Unterhaltungsindustrie. Fischer Verlag/Frankfurt/M. Internet Sources: Burnheim, Sally (2003/November 30): "Freedom of Expression: Case law under European convention on Human Rights". The Daily Star.
‘the necessity of rethinking our sense of place in the context of the transformations and destabilisations wrought both by the forces of economic globalisation and by the global media industries.’ (Morley 2000:5). The evolution of communication technologies has allowed the spread of media across the world, making media a powerful force within politics and the formation and spread of culture. Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, films, music, and not forgetting the Internet, are the primary mediums of informational communication throughout the public sphere. The sending, receiving and experience of media messages have become a large part of daily life, and individuals are unknowingly bombarded with advertising messages everyday. The reception of media is not only for instructive purposes, it has become a huge source of public interest and leisure.
Amartya Sen’s book entitled ‘Peace and Democratic Society’2 describes a lot how the media raises important issues about corruption, violence and the downfall of man- issues that “might otherwise never be publicly debated or addressed”. Thus, studying media and communication allows us to be part of this public debate and discuss matters within our society that may come as a shock or a particular interest to us. She furthermore goes onto state that the media has an “important role in stimulating governments to take action on social policy”, which, is something which is of particular debate currently. We as humans shall always have more power collectively, rather than as one. Not just by attending protests, for example do we have power, but also through online petitions.
Nevertheless, it is clear that a closer inspection of the media is crucial to becoming a more informed consumer of it. Specifically, how studying the media will empower its audiences and help develop more sophisticated readings of media texts; how the media pertains to the ‘conception of the self’ (Thompson, 1995, p. 22); and how useful it is to be a student of media studies. Our worldview is constructed using information that is filtered to us through various forms of media. To study the media is to then investigate these filters. Bazalgette (2000, p. 2) suggested that politicians and industry leaders who were born in the early twentieth century were likely unfamiliar with new technology.
These movements impact the governments’ to change how they define politics and amend legislation as well as raise awareness. As time progresses and states learn from the injustice of the past, the world can have a better tomorrow. I put forth the argument that the rise of social movements is due to moving from materialism issues to post-materialism issues, which has impacted politics immensely. Post-materialism “describes the degree to which a society places immaterial life-goals such as personal development and self-esteem above material security.” (Thurik, R & Uhlaner, L, 2004: 2) It is evident that the rise of social movements from materialism issues to post-materialism issues is because of historical events, social networking and globalization. Social movements are created by groups that are advocating for change that the government is not acknowledging in elections or dealing with when in power.
One modification that will affect future societies will be how the majority of the world will begin to define how they will govern themselves. The global political landscape will continue its movement toward democratization through the year 2025 (Canton, 2007). The two key factors associated with this trend will be the continued development of information technologies and the United States sustaining power to influence other country’s government and policies. These two trends will continue to generate the spread of democracy across the globe. This article is written to help stimulate strategic thinking about America’s foreign policy for the future.