The History and Future of Cyborgs

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In the latter half of the twentieth century society, culture and science evolved visions and capability around the common prefix ‘cyber’. It took on several virtual, computational, functional, scientific, sexual and criminal connotations. In the 21st Century, many computational notions have been replaced by ‘e’ to mean ‘of computer’ - however ‘cyber’, represented in music, words and films emerging at this time, which communicate the content of culture at the time, not simply technology – have not become ePeople, eMusic or eFilms, but remained postulated in cyberculture.

Cark (2004) identifies Manfred Clynes and co-author Nathan Kline as first coining the phrase "Cyborg" in a story called "Cyborgs and Space" published in Astronautics (September 1960).

The term was used to describe a human being augmented with technological "attachments". In popular fiction author Martin Caidin wrote the sci-fi fiction novel 'Cyborg' in 1978, later adapted in the 1973 television series "The six million dollar man". In this time, music also played a role in the popularizing the Cyborg - with an entire generation being familiar with the term. Kraftwerk (1981). “ComputerWorld”; Billy Idol (1993). “Cyberpunk”; The Prodigy (1995). "Music For The Jilted Generation"; Underworld (2007). "Oblivion With Bells".

Mark Weiser coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" in 1988 as he envisioned computers embedded in walls, tabletops, and in everyday objects. While using, technology, makes us notional Cyborgs in that it allows us to extend our human ability – through information appliances (Benyon, D. Turner, P., & Turner, S., 2005) the evolution in Cyborgs is related to the human and animal rather than the devices that they can learn to use per se.


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Motion Pictures

Spielburg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park Trilogy [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.

Niccol, A. (Director). (1997). Gattaca [Motion picture]. USA: Sony Pictures.

Scott, R. (Director). (1982). Blade Runner [Motion picture]. USA: Warner Brothers.

Cameron, J. (Director). (1984). The Terminator [Motion picture]. USA: Mgm.

Spielberg, S. (Director). (2001). A.I. - Artificial Intelligence [Motion picture]. USA: Dreamworks Video.

Chung, P. (Director). (1991). Aeon Flux [Motion picture]. USA: Paramount / Mtv.

Kusama, K. (Director). (2005). Aeon Flux [Motion picture]. USA: Paramount.

Crichton, M. (Director). (1973). Westworld [Motion picture]. USA: Warner Home Video.

End Notes

Aeon Flux: - online video of 1991 Animated Series.
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