New York: Crowell, 1958. Kagan, Donald, et al. Decline and fall of the Roman Empire: Why Did It Collapse? Boston: Heath, 1962. Katz, Solomon.
Introduction The Roman Empire was one of the largest empires that existed in the world. This empire is known for a myriad of attacks and exploitations among other uncouth acts. The end of the Roman Empire remains to be a highly debatable issue especially the time this empire ended. For instance, Rutenburg and Eckstein (109) review conflicting sentiments on whether the Roman Empire actually fell. A number of authors believe that the Roman Empire never really fell but decline in size and influence since regions like Italy in modern world is renamed Roman Empire.
10) Marvin Perry, Myrna Chase, James Jacob, Margaret Jacob, Theodore Von Laue. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics & Society. Boston: Houghton Miffln Company, 1996 11) Piganiol, Andre. “The Causes of the Ruin of the Roman Empire.” Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: Why did it Collapse ? : Donald Kagan.
One of the main causes of disunity was the tension between the Emperor and his generals (Grant-1978-pg.437). By doing so, they left the offices of business in the city which out of this neglect began to disappear. This trend, although very strong in the west was comparably weak in the east, where the cities were older and more schooled and prepared to deal with economic recession. The final action of the Roman rulers to retreat to the country, resulted not only in the empires economy being weak, but moreover a general failure to function. A major reason for a weakening in the Empire was the inability to resist its invaders (Grant-1990-pg.60).
There were many reasons behind the fall of the Roman Empire, however, the economic reasons were the main source of its collapse. The fourth century was the period of time where the economy started to experience problems. During this time period, there were many inequalities between the rich and the poor, decreasing population, the German Barbarians holding Rome for ransom, cutting off their trade networks, inflation, and finally the de-specialization of the economy. Each of these causes were very significant in leading up to the fall of the Roman Empire. Throughout history, in many civilizations, there has always been a gap between the rich and the poor, and the gap between these groups in the Roman Empire was no exception either.
Gibbon made an argument that the intellectual inflexibility of the Roman Empire had declined into “barbarism” and “Christianity,” which ultimately attributed to the fall of the Empire. Many ideas in international politics may have the best foundations for evidence but quickly go out of style. The ideas behind Gibbon’s Decline did just that. Many authors attribute the decline of the Roman Empire to military and economic characteristics rather than virtuous leadership and characteristics. Because Gibbon takes a humanist approach in describing decline, he undermines legitimate factors that modern political scientists would evaluate.
Benjamin Franklin famously quipped “The only things certain in life are death and taxes.” These two constants of death and taxes apply not only to individuals, but also civilizations such as that of Ancient Rome. And while tax codes often seem complex, their complexity pales in comparison to that of attempting to understand and explain the decline of civilizations. For centuries, people have explored the reasons why civilizations fall, with explanations ranging from illness to environmental factors to political instability. One such possible factor is taxation, which Charles Adam explores in his book For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of Civilization, which argues that taxation is a major force in the rise and fall of civilizations. This paper investigates the role of taxes in ancient Rome and contends that an ineffective tax system was a major contributor to the fall of the Roman Empire.
“What Caused the Fall of the Roman Empire?” http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081210204946AAWwOKm 2. Gill, N.S. “Reasons for the Fall of Rome.” http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/fallofrome/tp/022509FallofRomeReasons.htm
Looking back through history on the classic civilizations, one will observe many strong and powerful empires. Empires such as the Romans, Greeks, Gupta, and the Han, all seemed so dominate and indestructible. However, as time has told, all these great empires have fallen into the history books as greatness that has passed. What is it that caused these great empires to fall, was it the results of external factors such as invasion, or the spread of a dominating religion, or was it due to internal factors such as political or economic issues. The answer to this question is found by examining two of the greatest classic empires, the Romans and the Hans.