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The 1960s, the significant era of African independence and change. In the 1960s the international system was characterized by the ideological war between two superpowers which emerged after the end of World War2.The ideological war is the Cold War between the West led by the United States and the East led by the USSR (http://vefir.mh.is/thgth/ib/, n.d.) .After independence many countries adopted the Western and the Eastern style of democracy and development. For many countries that won their independence in this era; particularly the Western or Francophone countries and the Eastern Bloc countries, these style of democracy and development failed, and African countries which were supposed to be following on the successful developmental path of their former colonial countries, instead were stagnant and even worse off (Matunhu 2011: http://www.acedicjournals.org/ ). Hence the rise of African theorists, critical thinkers, who developed theories of democracy and development fitting for African communities. Two of these influential classical thinkers are Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and Kwasi Wiredu of Ghana.
Kenya has been a symbol of East African solidarity, as they gained a reluctant sovereignty after years of ram shaking batter with colonialist Britain. Many factors contributed to the gaining of Kenyan independence in December 1963, using both aggressive and passive styles of rebellion they rebuked colonial autocracy and gained their independence. During the 19th Century numerous European countries begun to take an active interest in African countries, Kenya and much of East Africa was soon swept under British mandate. At the Berlin conference of 1885 Kenya was bestowed to Great Britain. By 1895 the British government managed to set up “The East African Protectorate” paving the path for white farmers who were interested in Kenyan fertile lands, even before the official ratification in 1920 making Kenya a British colony.
Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena (1992, May). Do African governments favor defense in budgeting? Journal of Peace Research, v29 n2, pp. 191(16). Jaycox, Edward (1993, March).
For many years, the African continent has been a center for political unrest. Much of that political unrest is blamed on the extended period of European colonization that the continent was forced to endure. Because of ethnic differences, natural resources, and ineffective governments, Africa has been subject to many military takeovers in the postcolonial period. Military takeovers are not unique to Africa. Like of many similar countries, the developing countries in Africa are naturally more susceptible to coup d’états than their developed counterparts.
University of Cambridge , 2010: 5-9. Peyntjens, Flip. "Constructing the truth, dealing with dissent, Domesticating the Word: Governance In Post-Genocide Rawanda." African Affairs, 2010: 1-34. Reyntjens , Filip.
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