History of Psychology In this essay I am looking at where Psychology as a discipline has come from and what affects these early ideas have had on psychology today, Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology, But the first Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness, and even vision among many others. While the great philosophical distinction between mind and body in western thought can be traced to the Greeks, it is to the influential work of René Descartes, French mathematician, philosopher, and physiologist, that we owe the first systematic account of the mind/body relationship. As the 19th century progressed, the problem of the relationship of mind to brain became ever more pressing. The word Psychology comes from two Greek words: Psyche and Logos. The term ?psychology?
Psychology is define as the study of human and animal behavior and of the mind. Psychology is a science because new use research and empirical data to answer theories and make predictions to explain different phenomena. In science we use observation, experiment, analysis and asking questions. You also must do your background research and form a hypothesis. In psychology there are typically several different hypotheses.
Psychology as the article states is “it is a broad discipline, essentially spanning subject matter from biology to sociology. Psychologists have doctoral degrees. They study the intersection of two critical relationships: one between brain function and behavior, and another between the environment and behavior. As scientists, psychologists follow scientific methods, using careful observation, experimentation and analysis. But psychologists also need to be creative in the way they apply scientific findings.”(APA, 2014) How psychology developed into science is when Wilhelm Maximillian Wundt whom a German physician philosopher, physiologist and professor and also the founder of modern psychology illustrated psychology as a science apart from biology and philosophy.
Physiology also contributed to psychology’s eventual emergence as a scientific discipline. Early physiology research on the brain and behavior had a dramatic impact on psychology, ultimately contributing to the application of scientific methodologies to the study of human thought and behavior. The ancestry of psychology is important, since they made a significant contribution to the founding of psychology even though they did not employ the scientific method.Many other issues still debated by psychologists today, such as the relative contributions of nature vs. nurture, are rooted in these early philosophical traditions.
Physiological psychology is the science that studies the biological basis of behavior. It is often referred to as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology. Physiological psychology is the original name for this field but there are other terms which are used like biological psychology, or behavioral neuroscience. This is just a field of psychology that connects behavior and mental processes to bodily processes, and to the functions and actions of the brain. The brain, in turn, affects behavior and the mind.
According to changing minds.org, Physiological psychology is the study of the physiological basis of how we think, connecting the physical operation of the brain with what we actually say and do. It is thus concerned with brain cells, brain structures and components, brain chemistry, and how all this leads to speech and action. It is also important to understand how we take in information from our five senses. Several persons contributed to the development of physiological psychology; such as Charles Darwin who were a biologist and whose theory of evolution revolutionized biology and strongly influenced early psychologists, René Descartes a philosopher and mathematician, Hermann von Helmholtz and Johannes Muller etc.Amongst them one of
The concept of psychology, defined by the Merriam Webster dictionary as: “the science of mind and behavior,” existed as early as 360 BC, when Plato published Timaeous. Although there were successful findings in the realm of psychology prior to the discoveries of Sigmund Freud, nevertheless Freud is remembered as the father of modern-day psychology because of his discoveries in psychoanalysis. The study of psychology prior to the findings of Sigmund Freud was incomplete, for, without the discovery of the subconscious, the human mind is unnavigable. In the 19th century, this "missing link" perplexed psychologists all over the world. The psychologists of that time had two views on the relationship of mind to brain: the first involved the localization of cerebral function, which was based on the idea which the brain serves as an organ of mind.
One physiologist that contributed to psychology was Hermann Helmholtz. Helmholtz believed the deductive method and the strength at which results were defended were not stable, or reliable. Helmholtz, along with fellow colleagues called for a change in the way research was done (Jurkowitz, 2010). Helmholtz made many advances in physiology developing tools to aid the medical community. Of his many contributions to society his contributions to psychology were game changers.
The psychoanalytical approach attempts to understand individual’s behaviours by analysing how personality is shaped by past experiences and the working of the mind (Glassman and Hadad 2013). On one hand both biological and psychoanalytic perspective are similar as they both take a deterministic approach in psychology when it comes to their core assumptions and key features, this means they both believe that human beings possess something inside themselves which can produce an effect on their own behaviour (Bell 2005) as biological researchers tend to view behaviour as being purely physical (Gasman and Hadad 2013) this meaning that it is a biological abnormalities that controls our behaviour. The biological perspective would suggest that any abnormalities that we may have are a result of error’s occurri... ... middle of paper ... ...pproach%20to%20psychology%20non%20science&f=false Advanced Psychology: Applications, Issues and Perspectives Christine Brain Nelson Thornes, 1 Oct 2001 - Psychology - 403 pages 1 Review The second of two books http://valen1971.webs.com/Assessments/Freud%20and%20the%20Little%20Hans%20Study.pdf Introducing Psychoanalysis by Ivan Ward, Oscar Zárate (Illustrator) 3.64 of 5 stars 3.64 • rating details • 14 ratings • 2 reviews How do psychoanalysts conceptualize the mind? Why was Sigmund Freud so interested in sex? How does analysis work?
Psychology research is needed to identify the problem and find solution to solve problem encounter. These two researches are main category of research have done in psychology field. This scientific research psychology is usually carried out by the person with doctoral of philosophy and master’s degree holder in psychology area such as cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology and development psychology. There are 5 steps in doing psychological scientific research which are make a research question, empirical study, data analysis, make a conclusion and refer literature (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). The first step is make a research question is a fundamental part of a research.