# The Contributions of Isaac Newton

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Sir Isaac Newton was considered one of the greatest scientists that ever lived. Along with his important discoveries, he figured out the exact laws of nature that made the Earth orbit the sun, the moon move around the Earth and how the tides ebb and flow. Another discovery was what creates the colors of a rainbow.

Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Woolsthrope, Lincolnshire. When Galileo Galilei died, Newton would soon pick up his ideas of mathematical science of motion and finish what Galileo had started.

His three basic studies were: optics, mechanics and mathematics. His discovery in optics was “the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colors” into the science of light and laid the foundation of physical optics. In mechanics his three laws of modern physics, in which resulted in the formulation of the law of universal gravitation. Last in mathematics he was the original founder of “infinitesimal calculus.” He made a book in 1687 called “Philosiphae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). This explained how gravity causes the laws of motion to manage our universe.

In 1655 he received a bachelor’s degree at Trinity College in Cambridge. After two years of college being closed down because of “The Plague”, he returned and became Lucasian professor of mathematics.

“Newton’s Laws of Motion”

During Isaac Newton’s study of modern physics and mechanics he conducted “the three laws of motion.” The laws cover only the overall motion of a body. An example is the motion of its center of mass. The concept is similar to assuming that the body is a particle with a definite mass but no size.

The “first law” states that “if a body is at rest or moving at a constant speed in a straight line, it will remain at rest or keep in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a force. This is briefly known as the “law of inertia.” Before Galileo died his law was that “bodies could move only as long as a force acted on them and that the absence of forces would result in the body to remain at rest.” Those who wanted to find the force that kept the planets moving didn’t realize that a seen force wasn’t necessary to keep them moving at a practically uniform rate in their orbits. Gravitational force, something that they weren’t aware of, only changes the direction of motion.