The Chernobyl Accident-An Epidemiological Perspective

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INTRODUCTION The world’s worst nuclear accident happened on April 26, 1986. States of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine has under gone many number of studies of the health effects of radiation from the Chernobyl accident have been conducted in the last 25 years. The main purpose of this report is to analyse the health effects from the invisible radiation. The studies have proven important links between radiation and cancer particularly in relation to the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to high level radiation. The issues to be discussed will be to analyse the risk management and safety in order to prevent another Chernobyl disaster and to reveal why the world really came to know the name “Chernobyl”. Sever exposure to radiation is untreatable and atrocious, which mainly concern about the cancer and the non-cancer effects. BODY Radioactivity refers to the spontaneous emission of a stream of electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay. The effect of high dose of radioactivity is perilous, the blood count changes and within hours to days the immune system is shut down and infections start to show. The gastro intestinal tract is affected and the person has to vomit, other internal organs such as the central nervous system (CNS) are also harmed. Each radiation dose no matter how small can cause cancer; the question is how often this occurs if other diseases can also be attributed to it. According to new studies, the effects of low-level radiation include, genome instabilities, mutations of DNA, malformations and increased cell aging. The radioactive elements dispersed by Chernobyl are Iodine 131 isotope which has a halftime of eight days, and is stored in the thyroid gland causing thyroid cancer. Caesium 137 is a ha... ... middle of paper ... ...racts and other cardiovascular diseases with regard to low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Studies among Chernobyl liquidators have provided enough evidence of the increases in the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other cancerous diseases. Works Cited 1. Bromet, E.J., Havenaar, J.M. & Guey, L.T. 2011, "A 25 Year Retrospective Review of the Psychological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident", Clinical oncology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 297-305 2. Lawson, D.S.2005, Engineering Disasters-Lessons to be learned, ASME Press, New York, pp.315-329. 3. Peplow, M. 2011, "Chernobyl's Legacy", Nature, vol. 471, no. 7340, pp. 562-565. 4. Thomas, G. A., Bethel, J. A., Galpine, A., Mathieson, W., Krznaric, M., & Unger, K. (2011). Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl - the Chernobyl tissue bank. Clinical Oncology, 23(4), pp. 276-281.

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