Biodiesel as a safe alternative fuel for internal combustion engines points to the mixture of mono alkyl esters of fatty acids (average chain length: C14-C22) that derived from triglyceride sources like vegetable oils . The vegetable oils are the renewable and sustainable energy sources that have calorific value close to traditional diesel . Conversion of triglycerides into methyl or ethyl esters is performed by transesterification reaction. Transesterification is an equilibrium and reversible reaction that converts the oil into biodiesel and glycerol. Employing the catalyst is essential due to insolubility of two main reagents, oil and alcohol.
1.1 Background Nowadays, industrial activity growth and increasing water usage worldwide have led to the release of various pollutants such as toxic heavy metals into aquatic environment. Industrial activity also can cause to heavy contamination in surface water, groundwater, or the sea, in which they enter into the food chain that causing the toxic effects. Heavy metals ion such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium are often found in industrial wastewater. Heavy metals are really dangerous because they can go through a process of bioaccumulation. They have the potential to ts accumulate within sensitive organs and tissues (Wong et al., 2009).
Introduction: In recent years it has become clear that some environmental chemicals can cause risks to the developing embryo and fetus. Evaluating the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals is now a prominent public health concern. The suspected association between TCE and congenital cardiac malformations warrants special attention because TCE is a common drinking water contaminant that is detected in water supplies throughout the U.S. and the world. There is a lot of concern about the clean up of toxic pollutants from the environment. Traditional methods for cleaning up contaminated sites such as dig and haul, pump and treat, soil venting, air sparging and others are generally harmful to habitats.
Bio energy has the same physical nature with fossil fuel, so to use infrastructure of fossil fuel is possible. Therefore, the costs of production, including rent for land, capital investment and establishment of a factory are lower. Furthermore, to utilize established export pipeline of fossil fuel can lower shipping price when bio energy is transported to other countries. As a result, cost inefficiency of bio energy can be solved. In addition, bio energy has sustainable characteristic.
The road from raw wool to the textile product contains a number of energy consuming operations, like: Carbonization→ Washing → Crabbing→ Dyeing → Finishing A solution for making these processes eco-friendly is to use biotechnology . Wool carbonization consists in the elimination of the cellulosic residues present on the raw wool. It is usually performed with concentrate sulfuric acid delivering strong acidic wastewaters. The use of enzymes in this process represents a possibility to diminish pollution as well as the water and energy consumed. According literature, partial carbonization with cellulolytic enzymes has been realized .
Therefore, the option providing the greatest level of benefits over costs, when compared to the alternative is going to be the most preferred option for site remediation. Works Cited DEQ. (2013). Environmental Cleanup. Retrieved from Oregon Department of Envriornmental Quality: natural bioremediation; soil vapour and water extraction; activated carbon treatment of emissions Postle, M. F. (1999).
Before talking about biofuels, you need to know the basics from where it is created from. Biofuels are produced from biomass, which is derived from living or recently living plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural residue, algae, and other biological material. “Biofuel is considered carbon neutral”, which absorbs roughly the same amount of carbon dioxide during growth as when it is burnt (Rutherford, 2009). Biofuels is much cleaner than petrol/diesel because of the considerable impact petrol/diesel has on the environment from the high fuel emissions. Biofuels will help decrease dependence on fossil fuels such as oil, gas, petrol, and coal.
Incorporation of these types of abundant and cheaply available oils and oil wastes, in the industrial production media, might improve biosurfactant production economics, making them challenging targets for future R&D activities. Moreover, the application of used coconut oil as an alternate carbon source for biosurfactant production would provide an advantage for the development of the productive chain of the coconut, an important industrial segment in tropical coastal regions. B Sridhar et al (2012) studied Purification and Characterization of Biosurfactants. The emulsifications of biosurfactants were checked in various oils such as olive, coconut, sunflower and rice bran oils, the emulsification activity of biosurfactants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had higher emulsification
This novel methodology has the advantage of minimizing API usages during process development, reducing process development time and ensuring process robustness during technology transfer to clinical manufacturing. This method outlines specific steps based on flow rates, thermodynamics and drying kinetics to produce a more efficient process for spray drying. It is particularly efficient for process development and circumvents the iterative design of experiment (DOE) method for spray drying process development. The typical spray drying process begins when a spray solution is delivered to an atomizer in a spray drying chamber at the same time as hot drying gas. Spray solutions consist of API and polymers dissolved in a solvent.
Valappil et al. (2007a) carried out chloroform extraction and obtained Purity-92%; Yield-31% with Bacillus cereus SPV. Jiang et al. (2006) developed acetone extraction method for the extraction of mcl-PHA from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 they reported that almost all of the PHA could be recovered with no detectable loss of molecular weight when dry biomass was cleaned in 20 parts of methanol about 5 min pursued by Soxhlet extraction in 10 volumes of acetone for 5 h. The utilization of solvents demolishs the normal external features of PHA granules that is valuable in definite applications like the fabrication of strong fibers. But, contrary to some other recovery methods, solvent extraction do not degrade the polymer (Jacquel et al., 2008) also solvent extraction has undoubted advantages over the other extraction methods of PHA in order to