In Kwame Anthony Appiah’s essay, “Education for Global Citizenship”, Appiah’s main argument is to advocate education to promote in a multicultural spirit. He explains that educating both the young and old, need a sense that we, as the people are the same and each person matters. This challenges the concept of both unilateralism and fundamentalism. Unilateralism is the process of acting or reaching a decision and fundamentalism is a form of a religion, especially Islam or Protestant Christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture. In order to understand Appiah’s argument, we must understand the concept of a citizen of the world which he uses Diogenes’ theory. Diogenes’s concepts of global citizenship are:
...ens are also citizens of democracy. Thanks to Thucydides' meticulous minute of Pericles' funeral oration, this and the true nature of the Athenians are revealed. In The History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides chronicles not only the events, battles, and democratic processes of the war, but how citizens coped and responded to it. In his funeral oration honoring the courageous Athenians who already perished in battle, Pericles divulges the true nature and culture of Athens. Ultimately, they were good natured. The mutually reciprocal relationship between the government and the people delineated itself through the funeral oration, seeing that the nature of Athenians directly correlates with the polis. There was valid reason for the Athenian good nature, since all the citizens of Athens willingly and dutifully served their country and ultimately, the common good
In a democracy, people choose representatives to lead and govern them. However, these representatives might take unpopular steps. In such instances the people may show their disapproval of a policy and vent their grievances through acts of civil disobedience. Henry Thoreau said, “It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right.” It is both the right and responsibility of a person to fight an unjust law, and civil disobedience allows one to convey his thoughts and ideas in a passive, nonviolent way. In Sophocles’ Antigone, written in 442 B.C., we find one of the earliest examples of civil disobedience. The play emphasizes the right of the individual to reject his government’s infringement on his freedom to perform a personal obligation and highlights the struggle that one faces in doing so. More importantly, it shows how such actions help further the cause of democracy. It strengthens the belief that each individual’s opinion is important in a democracy and makes a difference. Eventually, we see Creon realize his mistake – his stubbornness – which teaches him that he should have room for more than one opinion. Also, women at that time were not considered equal citizens, but Antigone’s actions left people to rethink the extent of the equality in Athenian democracy.
In the article “Lost in America”, Douglas McGray focuses heavily on the problem of isolationism in the U.S education system in order to prove that changes in the education of young Americans must be taken. McGray’s purpose is to persuade his audience to integrate multicultural education into the American academic system and curriculum. So, that future Americans will no longer be isolated from the world’s many cultures and America will not fall behind other nations. This article is directed at the people having control and authority over the education of the young generation, including instructors, academic curriculum planners, and legislators.
Fraser, James W. Between Church and State: Religion and Public Education in a Multicultural America. New York: St. Martin’s Press, c1999.
The questions suggested by the term "multiculturalism" range far and wide, embracing questions of inclusion: Who and what is to be taught?—questions of criteria: On what grounds, if any, can "we" make appraisals of "other cultures"?—questions of self-identity: When I say "we," who am I including in such august company?—questions of the meaning of multiculturalism: What is it? What is its purpose...
We need to make sure that as teachers’, we are providing an education to our students that is between the extremes of assimilation and suppression. We need to make sure that we are providing an environment that promotes pluralism. Our instruction, curriculum, and activities should be pluralistic in nature and those that are not pluralistic should be adjusted accordingly. As teachers, it is important to note that many instructional topics will be assimilation in nature and it will be our jobs is to teach it in a pluralistic manner. Instructional topics may include: Democracy, rules, laws, rights as citizens, citizen responsibility, etc.
Since diversity is so vital for all free nations, it can also be said that diversity education is essential for the citizens of these nations. Without diversity education, people forgo the opportunity to broaden their horizons through the myriad of ideas and thoughts that exist in ...
Plato defines Athens as a democratic society that “treats all men as equal, whether they are equal or not.” Therefore, believes that there are those that are born to rule and others that are born to be ruled. Plato presents the argument that democracy does not achieve the greatest good, giving four main objections to democracy. Firstly, he identifies that most of us are ruled by passions, pleasure, sentiment and impulse. Hence, th...
ABSTRACT: John Searle opposes multiculturalism because he views it as part of a movement to undermine the concepts of truth and objectivity in the Western tradition. Richard Rorty disagrees with Searle about the relation between philosophical theories of truth and academic practices, but he is neutral on the issue of multiculturalism. Charles Taylor approaches the issue historically, defending multiculturalism as emerging from one branch of liberal political theory. I argue that the debate over epistemological and political issues has tended to obscure the educational benefits of multiculturalism. A multicultural curriculum works very well in fulfilling the traditional goals of education in philosophy. It can assist the teacher as Socratic "midwife" and "gadfly" in delivering students from their narrow and uncritical opinions and awakening them to a world of intellectual diversity. Thus, multiculturalism is not so much a recent movement as a new name for an old method of teaching.
Global Citizenship Global citizenship gives learning meaning by being exciting, relevant and grounded in 'real-life' scenarios (Oxfam Education, no date). The Citizenship Foundation (2017), highlights some of the main benefits of teaching global citizenship. They believe it: • Challenges misinformation and stereotyped views about Southern countries, and allows children to counter ignorance and intolerance. • Acknowledges that we have power as individuals: each of us can change things, and each of us has choices about how we behave. But this power can be even greater when we work collectively.
Each religion has a different set of fundamental rules and rights. When moving from one place to another we tend to bring our ideologies and beliefs with us we do not leave them behind. There are many different cases as Will Kymlicka mentions in his books Multicultural citizenship, which I will be referring to throughout this essay. As humans we have certain types of needs one of which is the need to belong. Belong to a family, community, group or nation.
The perception of multicultural education in the United States has certainly evolved over the preceding decades. As a corollary of the social activism and desegregation movements of the 1960s and 1970s, the emergence of ethnic studies within public education systems came about as a sincere recognition that all students should – and must – learn to participate in a diverse world (Trent, 2012). While all governments expect and sometimes require a minimal level of civil responsibility and participation from their citizens, it is impossible to overstate the importance of freedom of association, religion, speech, and political organization for protecting group difference. However, parallel to various sociopolitical disturbances that have increasingly
Multiculturalism is one approach to overcome diversity in a society. It consists of the integration of different people with different beliefs, backgrounds, and traditions. Will Kymlicka, author of “Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights” provides an argument and definition of multiculturalism and freedom. He believes that multiculturalism is necessary and ideal for a liberal nation, which then prioritizes individual rights. The term ‘culture’ has been used to understand “all manner of groups, from teenage gangs to global civilization” (76). However, Kymlicka focuses on a specific type of culture known as a societal culture, “a culture which provides its members with meaningful ways of life across the full range of human activities, including social, educational, religious, recreational, and economic life” (76). These societal cultures are people living together that share a common culture that is embedded in different practices. He believes these societal cultures need accommodation, protection, and government support. The perseveration of these societal cultures is important because culture gives individuals an identity, sense of belonging, self-esteem, and self-respect through the access of choices rooted in freedom. Kymlicka’s theory also relates to the ban of ethnic studies in Arizona schools two years ago. The bill bans schools from teaching classes that are
Within his research, Aaron T. Sigauke (2013) described how in some nations citizenship education is taught school-wide in all subjects and school activities, but this approach is the exception rather than the rule (p. 11). Traditionally, the teaching of citizenship is generally reserved for social studies classes and is not directly taught as a separate subject. Although the reasons vary as to why it should not be its own course, most educators and politicians agree that it should be indirectly taught in the social studies curriculum because it can be incorporated into the study of history and civics, as well as an analysis of the great citizens (military leaders, politicians, scientists, et al.) that contributed to the nation’s chronicle (Keating, 2011, pp. 762-765). When this practice is combined with national holidays and other local or state celebrations, then the study of civilization becomes more significant and meaningful for all of the students (Keating, 2011, p.