Unintentional Injury Death
In the world there is an alarming trend where what seems to be harmless accidents take the lives of thousands of people every year. However, the loss of life and human potential is unacceptable. These unintentional injury deaths take on a myriad of forms that are brought out by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). With the guidelines provided by these organizations Public Health Nurses (PHN) can help develop and execute strategies in an effort to decrease the lives lost to unintentional injuries.
In the ongoing war to achieve better population health in the United States, there is a developing resource for Americans. Healthy People 2020 (HP 2020) is an extensive combined effort by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Agencies, Public Stake Holders, and an Advisory Committee that utilizes the Social Determinants for Health as its framework, to aid the transformation of the United States to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. The HHS utilizes HP 2020 to seize a renewed focus in the identifying, measuring, tracking, and reducing health disparities via a determinant of health approach. HP 2020 is based on 4 previous Healthy People initiatives: 1979 Surgeon General’s Report, Healthy People: The Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention; Healthy People 1990: Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation; Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives; and Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010): Objectives for Improving Health. The multiyear process that is HP 2020 reflects the input from a diverse group of organiza...
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...cally, many of these programs once existed in Schools and Community Centers but because of the lack of funding were cut or deemed unessential. By focusing on Schools and Community Centers, the PHN can affect change in younger generations and by doing so affect change in older generations by the spreading of interests and concerns for personal safety through education and mentorship, which would positively influence development of Personal Responsibility. Companies that show positive changes or maintain a high degree in Safety Program proficiency/effectively could receive tax breaks or other financial rewards. The development of these programs shall effect changes due to repetition and familiarity from on the job performance, and trickle down to the younger generations through proper mentorship with the overall effect increasing individual personal responsibility.
Safety competency is essential for high-quality care in the medical field. Nurses play an important role in setting the bar for quality healthcare services through patient safety mediation and strategies. The QSEN definition of safety is that it “minimizes risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance.” This papers primary purpose is to review and better understand the importance of safety knowledge, skills, and attitude within nursing education, nursing practice, and nursing research. It will provide essential information that links health care quality to overall patient safety.
Americans assume that health care is the key to good health, however there is little evidence for this belief. There is always something beyond medical care. Much evidence reflects that the way in which people live, learn, work, and play has a greater impact on one’s health. There are also many factors referred to as ‘social determinants of health’ that affect Americans ' health in homes, work environments, and communities. These social determinants serve as barriers standing in the way to better health.
When we consider the education of our children in the United States, we must consider their health as a significant issue as it can positively or negatively impact a student’s education. It has generally been acknowledged that there is a great disparity in our country in the area of health care. Healthy People2010, a published report put out by the Health and Human Services Division of the Unites States Government (2000) has included as part of its Goals for 2010, to eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population. According to this report, health differences occur depending on a persons gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, rural locality, or sexual orientation. In this paper, I will mostly concentrate on racial and ethnic differences as well as socioeconomic differences. According to the Healthy People 2010 report, biological and genetic differences do not explain the health disparities experienced by non-White populations in the United States. Besides "complex interaction among genetic variations, environmental factors, and specific health behaviors," Health and Human Services says, "inequalities in income and education underlie many health disparities in the United States." Also, "population groups that suffer the worst health status are also those that have the highest poverty rates and least education." Health, United States (1998) reported that each increase of income or education increased the likelihood of being in good health. According to this report, those with less education tend to die younger than those with more education for all major causes of death including chronic diseases, communicable diseases and injuries. There are several factors that account for differences between socioeconomic and racial and ethnic groups. These factors include a lower sedentary life style, cigarette smoking and less likely to have health insurance coverage or receive preventive care among these groups.
The Quality and Education for Nurses (QSEN) project has set several goals for future nurses to meet in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitude (KSAs), one of which is safety (2014). The definition of safety according to QSEN is minimizing risk of harm to patients through system effectiveness and individual performance (QSEN, 2014). Since falls are such a huge occurrence in health care, preventing falls is critical for patient safety. The Joint Commission (2011) has also noted fall prevention as a National Safety Patient Goal (NPSG) 09.02.01 requiring hospitals to reduce the risk of harm resulting from falls.
As defined by World Health Organization (WHO), health is a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." (WHO, 2016). However, this statement can vary among people’s perspective of what consider healthy or unhealthy. In the minority group of Hispanics or Latino, health issues have taken a big toll due to fact they are the largest uninsured rates of any racial and ethnic groups in the United States (OMH, 2015). Besides not having health insurance, there are many barriers that this minority group encounters that create a big impact on what enables them to promote health. This paper will analyze the health status of the Hispanic or Latino groups by comparing and contrasting it to the national average, and also will highlight the health disparities in the group and the best approach to health using the three levels of health promotion and prevention.
Healthy People 2020 is a program for the promotion of health and the prevention of diseases, launched by the Department of Health and Human Services in December 2010. According to healthypeople.gov, this program has four overarching goals which are first to achieve healthy, longer lives free of preventable diseases, injuries, and premature deaths; to achieve health fairness, eliminate differences, and improve all groups’ health; also to produce social and physical environments that encourage good health; and last but not least to promote life’s quality, healthy development, and healthy behaviors through all life stages. This program has a vision of a community where people live long, healthy lives. Healthy People 2020 offers a comprehensive set of 10 years of nationwide goals and objectives that is meant to improve the health of the American population. Healthy People 2020 covers 42 topic areas with approximately 600 objectives, which include 1,200 measures. A smaller set of Healthy People 2020 objectives, has been designated to communicate high-priority health issues and actions that can be taken to address them, this objectives are called Leading Health Indicators. The program goes above and beyond these health indicators in order to provide the best care for the people of this country. These indictors cover from the access of health service, nutrition, physical activity, and obesity to substance abuse, environmental quality, injury and violence.
Patient falls is one of the commonest events within the healthcare facilities that affect the safety of the patients. Preventing falls among patients requires various methods. Recognition, evaluation, and preventing of patient falls are great challenges for healthcare workers in providing a safe environment in any healthcare setting. Hospitals have come together to understand the contributing factors of falls, and to decrease their occurrence and resulting injuries or death. Risk of falls among patients is considered as a safety indicator in healthcare institutions due to this. Falls and related injuries have consistently been associated with the quality of nursing care and are included as a nursing-quality indicator monitored by the American Nurses Association, National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators and by the National Quality Forum. (NCBI)
The rate of errors and situations are seen as chances for improvement. A great degree of preventable adversative events and medical faults happen. They cause injury to patients and their loved ones. Events are possibly able to occur in all types of settings. Innovations and strategies have been created to identify hazards to progress patient and staff safety. Nurses are dominant to providing an atmosphere and values of safety. As an outcome, nurses are becoming safety leaders in the healthcare environment(Utrich&Kear,
With increasing rates of harms, increasing efforts are required by all health care organizations to transform practices to reduce the risk of harms. Along with all other health care teams, nurses can play a significant role in ensuring patient safety by establishing care related policies and procedures, educating, disseminating and ensuring its compliance for patient care processes. Roger et al (2007) mentioned that procedural errors accounted for almost a third of total errors like vigorous suction in high intracranial pressure patients or head elevation to spinal surgery patient etc. Therefore, risk factors related to processes should be examined for their role in error prevention, discovery and correction. Further, we need to develop and implement some harm reduction program to attain international patient safety goals (IPSG) during patient care. There are various barriers such as lack of organization support and authority, lack of involvement in quality initiatives, interruptions during work, long working hours and fear of disciplinary actions etc. faced by nurses leading to decrease contribution of nurses in future harm prevention. Therefore, organization and nurses’ leaders need to establish some strategies to overcome these barriers. Organization needs to appreciate the role of nurses so they can also participate in detecting, reporting and preventing most of the hospital incidence. Organization
Rogers et al (2013) also state a key factor in nursing workplace injures is that around the age of 40 nurses begin to lose strength and mobility making it more difficult to handle patients physically. There are also several negative outcomes that occur because of workplace injuries in nurses. For example, 12% of nurses leave the profession annually secondary to occupational back injuries, cost total around $7.4 billion annually and the average workdays lost for RN’s with musculoskeletal injuries is 5 days per episode (Rogers et al.,
There are many inequities in this global world; should there be such gross inequities in the health of people around the world? We hear words like health gap, health care inequality and sustainability. What can be done to eliminate the health gap, health care inequities and maintain sustainability? The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations, private and public are working towards eliminating these disparities. Healthy People 2020 are one such goal that has achieved considerable progress in attaining sustainability in the pursuit of global health goals (Gostin et al., 2013). The health gap can be minimized through health strategies. Among them are essentials for all in this global world; clean air, water, healthy food and adequate housing with hygienic living conditions. Primary, secondary, tertiary prevention and care services should be available to all who seek health care services.
Working as a nurse, patient care associate, or any other health care professional is not an easy job. Nursing profession has the highest rate of back and other injuries related to lifting, moving and transporting patients. Hospitals and other nursing facilities were experiencing increased numbers of injuries, which meant many lost work days, worker’s compensation costs and patient safety at risk.
Worldwide, the main cause of death in children results from injuries sustained accidentally, and that correctly termed ‘unintentional injuries’ are preventable. Additionally, unintentional injuries that do not result in death can have a significant impact on a healthy developing child (Hoffnung et al., 2013). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Brussoni, Olsen, Pike, & Sleet, 2012), advocate play as crucial to the healthy development and wellbeing of a child. Research reveals children are naturally draw to exciting, exhilarating, challenging and stimulating play, this physically active type of play leads to a greater risk of unintentional injury. Children governed by overprotective and restrictive play, consequently have higher risk of unintentional injuries (Brussoni et al., 2012). It is fundamental that
Safety is a primary concern in the health care environment, but there are still many preventable errors that occur. In fact, a study from ProPublica in 2013 found that between 210,000 and 440,000 patients each year suffer preventable harm in the hospital (Allen, 2013). Safety in the healthcare environment is not only keeping the patient safe, but also the employee. If a nurse does not follow procedure, they could bring harm to themselves, the patient, or both. Although it seems like such a simple topic with a simple solution, there are several components to what safety really entails. Health care professionals must always be cautious to prevent any mishaps to their patients, especially when using machines or lifting objects, as it has a higher