Steps Of The Repair Process Of A Simple Fracture

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1. List and discuss the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.
Step 1: Blood forms a hematoma
Step 2: Spongy bone forms close to developing blood vessels and fibrocartilage forms in more distant regions
Step 3: Bony callus replaces cartilage
Step 4: Osteoclasts remove excess bony tissue restoring new bone structure to original form
2. List factors that can enhance the transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
⦁ Emotional state-We learn best when we are alert, motivated, suprised and aroused. Norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory processing of emotionally charged events, is released when we are excited or "stressed out", which helps to explain this phenomenon.
⦁ Rehearsal- Rehearsing or repeating the material enhances memory.
⦁ Association- Tying "new" information to "old" information already stored in LTM appears to be important in remembering facts.
⦁ Automatic memory- Not all impressions that become part of LTM are consciously formed. A student concentrating on a lecturer 's speech may record an automatic memory of the pattern of the lecture 's tie.
3. Discuss strokes and the causes of strokes.
CVAs occur when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked and brain tissue dies of ischemia, a reduction of blood supply that impairs the delivery of oxygen and nutrients. The most common cause of CVA is a blood clot that blocks a cerebral artery. A clot can originate outside the brain or form on the roughened interior wall of a brain artery narrowed by atherosclerosis. Less frequently, strokes are caused by bleeding, which compresses brain tissue. Not all strokes are "completed." Temporary episodes of reversible cerebral ischemia, called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), a...

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...rients in order to rebuild bone. Damage to a nutrient artery will decrease the delivery of these building materials and could slow the process of healing.
6. What new technologies might be used to enhance fracture repair if healing is delayed or impaired?
For a fracture that is slow to heal, new techniques that promote healing include electrical stimulation, which promotes the deposition of new bone tissue, and ultrasound treatments, known to speed healing.
7. How likely is it that Mrs. DeStephano 's knee cartilage will regenerate? Why?
At age 45, Mrs. DeStephano will most likely not regenerate her knee cartilage. Cartilage damage that occurs during adulthood is slow to heal, due to the avascular nature of cartilage, and is irreparable. Surgical removal of cartilage fragments to allow improved movement of the joint is the usual treatment for this type of damage.

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