“Ignorance and innocence are not always synonymous” (Ziegler 5) is the moral of Frank Wedekind’s play, Frühlings Erwachen, which was first performed in 1906. Wedekind employs satire to warn against the dangers of lack of education for the youth of the play. Spring Awakening, as it is known to English audiences, tells the story of three teenagers, who are being awakened to their sexual desires. However, they are entirely unprepared to deal with these desires. Thus, “the awakening leads to death” (Boa, Spring Awakening 27) in the case of two of the characters and leads the third character to become “imprisoned as a moral degenerate.” (Ziegler 5) In 2007, Spring Awakening: A New Musical, based on Wedekind’s play, premiered on Broadway. It went on to win eight Tony Awards. This musical took most of the original scenes and interlaced modern, pop musical numbers into it. The songs served as a way to show the modernity of the issues raised in the play and to show the innermost thoughts of the characters.
In the original play, the problem lies with the parents, who have failed to educate their children on matters of sex and their bodies. This leaves their children ill prepared to deal with their sexual urges for one another. The adults attempt to mold their children into their own “ideal self-image” (Boa, Spring Awakening 35-36) They do all of this “in the name of morality, but in reality to satisfy personal desires.” (Boa, Spring Awakening 35-36) One could make the argument that the tragedy of the play occurs because of the adults. Moritz commits suicide only after his father disowns him for failing in school. Wendla dies at the hand of an abortionist only after her mother forces her to get an abortion for fear of what people would th...
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...Inc., 1987. 26-54. Print.
Boa, Elizabeth. "Wedekind and the 'Woman Question'." Boa, Elizabeth. The Sexual Circus: Wedekind's Theatre of Subversion. New York : Basil Blackwell Inc. , 1987. 167-202. Print.
Sater, Steven and Duncan Sheik. Spring Awakening: A New Musical. New York: Theatre Communications Group, Inc. , 2007. Print.
Sater, Steven. "Preface ." Sater, Steven and Duncan Sheik. Spring Awakening: A New Musical. New York: Theatre Communications Group, Inc. , 2007. VII-XV. Print.
Spring Awakening: A New Musical. By Steven Sater and Duncan Sheik. Perf. Lea Michele, Jonathan Groff and John Gallagher Jr. Eugene O'Neil Theatre, New York. 2 February 2007. Video.
Wedekind, Frank. Frühlings Erwachen (Spring Awakening). Start Publishing LLC, 2012. eBook.
Ziegler, Francis J. "A Poem for Prudes." Wedekind, Frank. Spring Awakening . Start Publishing LLC, 2012. 5-15. eBook.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes the moral of frank wedekind's play, frühlings erwachen, which employs satire to warn against the dangers of lack of education for the youth.
Analyzes how in the original play, the problem lies with the parents, who have failed to educate their children on matters of sex and their bodies.
Analyzes how moritz commits suicide after his father disowns him for failing in school, wendla dies at the hand of an abortionist only after her mother forces her to get abortion for fear of what people would think of the family if her child were to have a child.
Explains that they believe in instinct. they believe that if one brought up male and female cats together, and kept them separated from the outside world, the she cat would become pregnant.
Analyzes how melchior uses knowledge that he has attained by reading books rather than being taught to have sex with wendla, which results in her pregnancy. moritz, in the fourth scene of the first act, says, "if i hadn't been promoted i would have shot myself."
Analyzes how the broadway musical took the original play and added music to it. the dialogue is set in the late 1800’s, whereas, the songs jump into modern day.
Analyzes how wendla and her mother argue about how to conceive a child. she sings mama who bore me and all of the girls join in.
Analyzes how melchior and moritz are introduced to the reader in the next scene. they are asked to continue a recitation of virgil's aeneid.
Analyzes how melchior points out that history and science don't matter. the adults of the play blindly ignore what history, science, and bible tell them.
Explains that the adults want the children to blindly believe what they are told through school and through the bible.
Analyzes how melchior is lamenting the fact that the adults see someone with their own thoughts as a threat. this is partly why all adult roles are played by the same actor or actress.
Analyzes how the bitch of living introduces the rest of the male characters, all of which are struggling with their sexual desires.
Opines that these boys are doomed to become their parents if they continue on the path that they are on. they all sense that there is something more to life, but none of them know how to achieve it.
Analyzes how the play deals with physical and sexual abuse of martha and ilse.
Analyzes how melchior and wendla are fascinated by their abuse, which leads to one of the most disturbing scenes in the play.
Explains that melchior and wendla are numb. they want to feel something for once in their lives, even if it is pain.
Analyzes how moritz's song, and then there were none, shows the audience exactly how he is feeling after every adult in his life has turned on him.
Analyzes how melchior is distraught about what happened with wendla and is a much less sympathetic character without this song. he feels as if there is something wrong with him, but he does not know what to do.
Narrates how wendla stumbles upon melchior in the hayloft after the mirror-blue night. they have not seen each other since he beat her.
Analyzes how neither melchior nor wendla truly understands what occurred between them in the precious scene. they know that they are connected.
Analyzes how the musical differs drastically from the original play. in the play, wendla is raped, and she eventually says yes to melchior's advances.
Analyzes moritz's swan song, don't do sadness/blue wind, where he is about to shoot himself when ilse comes up behind him.
Analyzes how ilse is trying to show moritz that it is not that bad. there will be bad times and good times in one’s life, but they will pass as the seasons do.
Explains boa, elizabeth, the sexual circus: wedekind's theatre of subversion.
Describes boa, elizabeth, the sexual circus: wedekind's theatre of subversion.
Describes sater, steven, and duncan sheik's spring awakening: a new musical.
Explains sater, steven, and duncan sheik. spring awakening: a new musical.
Presents spring awakening: a new musical by steven sater and duncan sheik. perf. lea michele, jonathan groff and john gallagher jr.
Explains ziegler, francis j., "a poem for prudes." wedekind, frank. spring awakening, start publishing llc, 2012.
Lazarus, Joan. "On the Verge of Change: New Directions in Secondary Theatre Education." Applied Theatre Research 3.2 (July 2015): 149-161. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1386/atr.3.2.149_1.
In this essay, the author
Explains that their group's umbrella topic focuses on race and diversity in the media and populated areas.
Explains the key issues they will be researching are stereotyping, representation, the opportunity of racial minorities within the theatre community, and the impact of this representation on future actors.
Explains that they will watch interviews with different actors discussing the issue of typecasting and the lack of representation on stage.
Explains brenner, lisa s., "playing jewish at the national asian american theatre company."
Analyzes how lisa brenner's article, "playing jewish at the national asian american theatre company," questioned the lack of diversity.
Analyzes how lisa brenner, a well-educated author, had been fair in her analysis of diversity in theatre.
Analyzes sharon l. green's essay, "teaching theatre in precarious times: strategies for survival in the liberal arts curriculum." she provides different plans to bring in more diversity.
Opines that green's ideas were helpful to the development of their questions and answers. as a professor of theatre, she does have experience and first-hand observation.
Explains that rebecca burton and laine zisman newman contributed a more detailed plan to correct the lack of diversity in "equity in theatre: a project for change."
Opines that the article will be helpful to the project. the other two articles provided solutions, but this source gave more specific solutions.
Opines that their study is a worldwide problem, but the data was specific to the mississauga territory.
Asks, do people of other races feel like they have a limited amount of roles to choose from?
Cites lazarus, joan, fleming, josephine, varma, rahul, and schwellnus. "equity in theatre: a project for change."
Explains that the article was about racial minorities in theatre as a whole. they could use it to refer to how this problem came to be.
Explains that they will use this essay because it added to the foundation of their project. burton, rebecca, and laine zisman newman.
Wells, E A. (2011) West Side Story Cultural Perspectives on an American musical. Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how leonard bernstein and stephen sondheim's 'west side story' is a classic american musical based on shakespeare’s ‘romeo and juliet’. the essay will explore the music and how effective the score is in realising the world and characters of the musical
Analyzes how bernstein establishes tension between the american jets and the puerto rican sharks with syncopated staccato major and minor third chords.
Analyzes how bernstein uses bitonality to demonstrate the ongoing rivalry between the jets and the sharks. the lower part of the orchestra provides a steady bass line in e major, with the higher-pitched instruments playing in a minor.
Analyzes how bernstein uses the score and choreographed dance to illustrate the tension created between the two rival gangs.
Analyzes how bernstein and sondheim use the score and lyrics to depict individual characters using traditional music and speaking styles from their individual cultures.
Analyzes how bernstein uses the tritone in various ways depending on the emotion being portrayed. the augmented 4th is seen when the a natural falls to the d sharp.
Analyzes how the interval is treated differently when bernstein portrays various characters and different emotions. in 'maria', he uses tritones but quickly resolves them to the note above.
Analyzes how bernstein uses the music to portray the different emotions felt by the characters in west side story.
Analyzes how the music of west side story represents the melting pot of american cultures at the period in which the musical was set. sondheim shows unity in emotions between these two very separate cultures as seen in ‘tonight (ensemble).
Analyzes how the contrapuntal part writing illustrates the three different situations and emotions of the characters within west side story.
Analyzes how musical theatre is a combination of music, drama, and choreographed dance, but west side story doesn't find the balance between them. sondheim's maria sings 'i feel pretty', which is unsuitable for her character.
Analyzes how the score from bernstein's west side story effectively realises the world and characters of the show by relating the music to the characters, their backgrounds, and their emotions.
Explains that something’s coming, something good; west side story and the american imagination.
Explains that herrera, b. (2012) compiling west side story’s parahistories, 1949-2009.
North Central Texas College performed their version of the rock musical Spring Awakening. Their adaptation was based on the 1891 version of the play by Frank Wedekind. The modern version of the play is written in English is by Anya Reiss. The play basically expresses the challenges, troubles, and misfortune teenagers go through, but also the happiness, joy, and excitement. The play also shows that in the adolescent years, teenagers are still searching and learning about themselves and discover who they really want to be. It also shows teenagers exploring their sexuality. The play was very relatable especially to teens. The play was performed on March 1, 2014 at 7:30PM at the First Bank Center for Performing Arts in Gainesville. This report will concern four elements of the production. I will focus on the acting, scenic design, costume and make design, as well as the sound design.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how north central texas college performed their version of the rock musical spring awakening, based on frank wedekind's 1891 version. the modern version is written in english by anya reiss.
Compares the broadway version of "those you've known" to a college production, where the actors have limited past experience, but their acting was professional.
Opines that the broadway version influenced the nctc production in terms of the scenic design.
Analyzes how the costume and makeup in the play embodied each character and their personalities. wendla wore a long white dress with white stocking and had simple makeup.
Analyzes how the sound design was great and the tones of their voices were amazing. the actress who played wendla had an amazing voice.
Opines that melchior's song "those you've known" was one of the best songs in the production.
Opines that zimmerer embodied wendla and that the designer did a great job with the costumes.
Analyzes how wedekind achieved a tragedy due to the fact that all the elements of the tragedy were implemented onto the script.
Opines that the play was worth producing, even though it showed rated r scenes like rape, masturbation, and other sexual situations. wedekind wanted to show people the reality of life.
Opines that the storyline, the acting, and all the designs were amazing. the plot serves as a good lesson for teens and teachers.
Ostlere, Hilary. “Taming The Musical.” Dance Magazine 73.12 (1999): 84. Expanded Academic ASAP. Westfield State College Library, MA. 15 April 2005.
In this essay, the author
Explains that many writers, painters, musicians, and directors have adapted and reformed the play of control and subjugation into timeless pieces of art.
Analyzes how the differences between katherina and bianca are highlighted through their interactions via dialogue.
Analyzes how katherina rebuts this whining after their father enters, and ends the scene with her own speech in which she argues that if she does not marry before her sister, then she never will find true love.
Analyzes how shakespeare plays on societal conventions to show how they can also backfire on someone unintentionally. the adaptations that follow highlight the differences between the characters of the two sisters in the play.
Explains that critics of shakespeare's play have questioned his motives in his critique of the "shrew" representation of women, as noted in sandra clark’s article "_the taming of the shrew_ and popular culture."
Argues that shakespeare's modifying of the violence of older wife-taming stories is not necessarily typical of popular ethos of such stories in early modern england, especially as represented in broadside ballads about masterful and scolding wives.
Analyzes how clark relates shakespeare's play to the oral literature of england, pointing out that he modifies the stories of old to make them more relevant to his own time.
Analyzes clark's claim that "the taming of the shrew" is a transitional play that highlights katherina and bianca in various ways.
Analyzes how _10 things i hate about you focuses heavily on the relationship between the two sisters and diverts from the story told in the original play.
Analyzes how friedman's film solves this difficulty by reconceiving what it means to be a shrew in america in the 1990s.
Analyzes how mandella and michael embody the shakespearean essence of "taming the shrew" in the film.
Analyzes how friedman assesses the film's presentation of feminism as not being essentially conservative but progressive.
Analyzes how bianca differs from the shakespearean character in that the shrew's taming is played off against the reverse personality shift of her sister in the final scene.
Analyzes hilary ostlere's review of the 1999 revival of _kiss me, kate_, "taming the musical."
Analyzes how the story of 'the taming of the shrew' is harder to relate to the musical as a whole, because the movie characters are only really seen as the characters in the play in which they are cast.
Analyzes elizabeth abele's article, "introduction: whither shakespop? taking stock of shakespeare in popular culture," which argues that shakespeare has become a commodity and brand that producers and marketers can exploit.
Analyzes how the paintings the shrew katherina by edward robert hughes and bianca by frederic leighton offer a new perspective on what others get out of the women in the play.
Argues that the artists who interpreted shakespearean characters may be seen as early feminist scholars, in that they depict the women as mostly independent on non-conformist.
Analyzes how gary schneider's article "the public, the private, and the shaming of the shrew" states that bianca needs to be shamed with honte in order to feel pudeur truly.
Analyzes how schneider shows that katherina succumbs to the doctrines of society, even if that was not her original goal. the audience is entrusted with shaming bianca.
Analyzes how the publicizing process in "the taming of the shrew" is meant to re-align kate with the proper modes of behavior, and to consolidate civilizing
Analyzes elizabeth abele's argument that the significance of parodying shakespeare is clear: shakespeare and his drama had become an integral part of american culture by the nineteenth century.
Analyzes how all of these adaptations juxtapose the roles of the females within the play, film, or art against the men, without focusing on that at all. the ideas that are presented in these two characters transcend the idea of a sisterly bond.
Describes the adaptations of dir, gil junger, perf, julia stiles, heath ledger, joseph gorden-levitt, and larisa oleynik.
Describes the works of elizabeth abele and alison booth, who authored the lessons of the medusa and collective biographies of women.
Explains that clark, sandra, and friedman, michael d. "the feminist as shrew in _10 things i hate about you."
Cites ostlere, hilary, schneider, gary, and schuler, robert m. "bewitching the shrew."
Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. "Un-Utterable Longing: The Discourse of Feminine Sexuality in The Awakening." Studies in American Fiction 24.1 (Spring 1996): 3-23. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 127. Detroit: Gale, 2002. Literature Resource Center. Web. 19 May 2014.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the awakening caused such a stir when it was released because of its openness with sin and sexuality.
Analyzes how edna pontellier took many steps towards her freedom from social constraints, by not being the woman of the house, and by buying the pigeon house. she realizes she can never really leave this burden and never achieve the level of freedom she yearns for.
Analyzes wolff, cynthia griffin, "un-utterable longing: the discourse of feminine sexuality in the awakening."
Analyzes how kate chopin's "the awakening" was censored in the 1800s. it spoke of sin, lust, freedom from social constraints, and the journey of finding one’s self.
Salmon, Catherine. (2003). Warrior Lovers: Erotic fiction, evolution and female sexuality. London: Yale University Press.
In this essay, the author
Compares the differences between romance novels and pornography, stating how they reflect human evolutionary history and disparate sexual selection pressures women and men experience.
Explains how natural selection has led males to develop enhanced spatial and visual skills, to better coordinate their attacks, while females have developed better verbal and language skills for communication.
Explains that pornography has changed little since victorian times. it is overwhelmingly visual, involves many different youthful and attractive partners, and provides instant sexual gratification without emotional commitment. romance novels are aimed directly at women.
Explains that pornography aimed at men often includes multiple women. the male brain can focus narrowly for long periods of time on body parts and the physical sex act.
Explains that romance novels for women talk about the characteristics of the mate, and do not focus on the physical body experience. females achieve greatest reproductive success by having the greatest number of children.
Explains that mass-market pornography aimed at men, and romance novels for women feed off the basic desires of each sex. variety, young, visually attractive women are what men wish for, while women enjoy the romance and emotional involvement of intimate relationships.
Cites galanti, g., kastleman, mark, salmon, catherine, and symons, donald.
From the moment a woman is born, she is automatically expected many things from her. Wear a dress, have no body hair, be with a man, don’t be too loud, etc. The list of “norms” that a woman is anticipated to uphold to goes on for days. And often times, women that decide to branch out from those “norms” are viewed as less valuable or obscene. In Robyn Ochs essay, “Bisexuality, Feminism, Men and Me”, she discusses the revolutionary moment when she realizes that living up to the assumptions of what it means to be a woman systemically limits us from our true potential. As presented in the movie “Frida”, a brilliant artist is often times overshadowed by her promiscuous relationships with women and men. A woman’s life does not dwindle down to the
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how robyn ochs' "bisexuality, feminism, men and me" discusses the revolutionary moment when she realizes that living up to the assumptions of what it means to be a woman systemically limits us from our true potential.
Analyzes how frida kahlo depicted the realization that she is much more than just what society imposes on her.
Analyzes how frida's story raises issues concerning the inequality that society creates when it comes to women being sexual beings.
Opines that society imposed standards and assumptions on women are still a very active topic in today's world. the same issues frida and robyn ochs have faced concerning their sexuality are parallel to one another.
INART005 Performing Arts. The College of Arts & Architecture at The Pennsylvania State University, 2011. Web. 7 April 2011.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the fine arts have proved durable to the test of time and provide a window into the past.
Argues that the meaning behind works in the fine arts tradition is lost in time and lacks current relevance.
Analyzes the economic tradeoffs of government funding in the arts, stating that the cost proposed by the national endowment for the arts (nea) for 2011 comes to just under 52 cents for each american.
Explains that critics question the moral status of government funding. the nea must make difficult decisions as to who receives the funds.
Argues that the fine arts connect a culture to its past and are upheld in quality and regulation. the government would do well to fund this art form, which offers lessons of the past, and predecessors to current times.
Cites bergheim, laura a, and kathleen culver. "national endowment for the arts." dictionary of american history.
Musical theatre has been around for quite a while. But where exactly did it come from? The book Anything Goes, written by Ethan Mordden looks to explore just that. From operas to musical comedies, Mordden covers the basic history of musical theatre and why it’s important for the world to know.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how ethan mordden's book, anything goes, explores the history of musical theatre. musical numbers are there to further the plot and tell more about the characters.
Analyzes how mordden explains that the beggar's opera was the first musical theatre piece, which fits into today’s definition of a musical.
Explains that mordden describes the two basic types of musicals so far: romantic and satiric, with musical ambitions and populist agenda, beautiful show and crazy show.
Explains that mordden mentions a musical called the red mill, written in 1906, which was the first broadway show to move lights across the stage.
Analyzes how mordden notes the genre of musical that has since gone out of style: revue. the genre itself has not disappeared, but has been merged into other genres.
Analyzes how mordden mentions many musicals in his book and explains why they are important to history. knowing why can help performers, designers, choreographers, and everyone in the musical theatre business further understand the industry.
For many years, American musical theatre was defined as being mere entertainment for the people. It ranged from operetta, burlesque, vaudeville, and more. If there is one towering figure in the history of American Musical Theater, that person is Oscar Hammerstein II. He was a lyricist-librettist, as well as a distinguished poet and director. For over forty years, as the theatre’s forms of entertainment shifted, he helped merge everything into the art form known today as the musical. Born twenty-three years after Hammerstein, came Alan Jay Lerner. Idolizing Hammerstein’s work, he would grow to become another distinguished lyricist-librettist in musical theatre history. In this paper, we will look deeper at who these lyricists are and their writing style. Then we will examine one of each of their works and factors that fueled their creation.
In this essay, the author
Explains that oscar hammerstein ii, a lyricist-librettist, distinguished poet, and director, helped merge all forms of entertainment into the art form known today as the musical.
Explains that oscar hammerstein ii, born july 12, 1895, was a quick worker and productive when it came to his work. he captivated the power of underscoring from film to heighten the language.
Explains that alan jay lerner, born august 31, 1918, was raised in a wealthy new york mercantile family. his pursuit for musical theatre came from seeing broadway shows, including irving berlin, the gershwins, rogers & hart, and oscar hammerstein ii.
Analyzes how hammerstein and rogers collaborated on a musical adaptation of ferenc molnár's liliom, which sparked the transition and development of their next show and hit, carousel.
Describes how lerner & loewe's first hit was brigadoon, a mystical story that follows tommy and jeff, who are engaged to be married in scotland.
Analyzes how lerner interlaced emotion with his commercialism in brigadoon's "eleven-o'clock" number and emotional high point.
Explains that oscar hammerstein ii and alan jay lerner have contributed a lot to the standard of what an american musical is.