Jacobs, Lewis. “Refinements in Technique.” The Rise of the American Film. New York: Teachers College Press, 1974. 433-452. Print.
The Paramount Decree of 1948 forced the major studio to divest their exhibition holdings including their monopoly over theaters. Soon, an increasing number of smaller theatres began appearing. This rise in independent theaters greatly contributed to a growing number of independent productions, and a widespread introduction of European a...
Today, the motion picture industry is an always changing, ever thriving business. Media corporations seem to be replacing true media moguls, buying out all aspects of the entertainment industry and forming one large conglomerate operating everything from radio to television to print to motion pictures. This semester I learned that the coming years will demonstrate a transformation of the motion picture and entertainment industry, not seen since its inception over a century ago.
Some examples of this include Samuel Goldwyn belonging to MGM, Fine Line belonging to Time-Warner, and October belonging to Universal. While not all consumers viewing a film may not at first make the connection that a company such as October belongs to Universal, the major studio influence is at play. Major studios also acknowledge that there is a market appeal to producing independent films. Often times the audiences for these films are more mature, older adults than the demographics many summer blockbuster films are marketed towards (How Indies Can Survive and Even Thrive in a Blockbuster World.). This more mature demographic is valuable for the studios to acknowledge since they tend to have more disposable income than the younger audiences and by generating content that is more palatable for this more mature demographic, the studios continue to expand their market
MacGowan, Kenneth. Behind the Screen: The History and Techniques of the Motion Picture. New York: Delacorte Press, 1965.
When we look at the key elements of the Hollywood project model, we see that they are aligned with the shift currently happening in corporate America:
Walt Disney Co.’s China division and Marvel Studios chose to partner with Beijing-based DMG Entertainment as the latter maintains close working ties with the state-run China Film Group. By doing so, the producers were able to bypass China’s rigid foreign film quota system of 34 films a year. This quota will be increased to 44 films in the next few years and that is good news for aspiring filmmakers from Singapore who is considering a join venture with China. By partnering with a Chinese company, the Singapore producer will gain leverage in obtaining a spot in the quota, as state media will view the co-production as a domestic film as opposed to a 100% foreign film.
There has always been an interesting connection between Hollywood and Europe. Hollywood has dominated European cinema since the First World War and at present accounts for approximately 80% of market share in the majority of European countries, while European share of the American market is weak at 5.02% in 2001. The Hollywood advantage is concentrated in one very particular kind of moviemaking: films that are entertaining, highly visible, and have broad global appeal. The typical European film has about one percent of the audience of the typical Hollywood film, and this differential has been growing. American movies have become increasingly popular in international markets, while European movies have become less so. A great effort has been made by Europe to try and regain some control over their film industry as American films have always experienced more success than European films in the European film industry and around the world. One of the main problems within the European film industry is that there is great cultural and linguistic diversity in Europe, which includes very nation specific humour (thus comedies don't travel well), and a lack of interest in regionally specific films. How can a divided European film industry successfully compete against a united Hollywood industry?
I want to discuss some of the conflicts and concerns that I have about what the Camera Cinemas complexes will face in the future if the stay at their current locations. I conducted a survey to see how many of my fellow citizens know of Art and Foreign Films. I was not only surprised by the response, but shocked to see that downtown San Jose is stiff not a comfortable place for most to go. Most people knew of Art Films or Foreign Films but the thought of seeing one was not a priority. What were important to most included special effects, good story and ratings. I was surprised by the number of responses that said they would watch a closed caption foreign film since most of the movies I see are closed caption. I normally associate closed caption with movies view by deaf people and find reading caption and trying to see what was going on very hard. The atmosphere of the theater would make the movie more enjoyable. All of the people who took the survey lived in the San Jose area for the last ten years. I will explore the results later in this essay.
Duy Dao and Hyoduk Shin explore the decreasing windows between theatrical and home release, and the implications of day-and-date releases in their recent article, Optimal Timing of Sequential Distribution: The Impact of Congrestion Externalities and Day-and-Date Strategies, in the journal of Marketing Science. The changes in the film industry are not solely due to technology. Industry officials are interested in maximizing profit, therefore are challenging previous norms in place of innovative advancement in distribution. In their study, Dao and Shin find an unexpected correlation between film quality and the subsequent success in multiplatform releases and the push from companies to shorten the distribution window to continue to increase profits, through a marketing model that examines consumptive preferences, industry inputs, and profitability. Effective marketing takes into account not only the consumer, but the quality and cost needed to meet expectations while turning the largest profit possible. Audiences are only willing to pay so much money for a film based on its perceived value. This “value” is considered to be the quality of the film. Quality can range from shooting definition, special
but not much more than that. Instead, what the producers got was the rights to what is now an almost instantly recognisable cinematic empire resulting in a further 21 films and countless other products and franchises. What I aim to find out is how the relationship between the audience and the screen, and what the consumer expect to see has changed and how Directors of the latest Bond films have risen to the challenge of creating a British super-spy for the 21st century.
After the paramount decree the Big Five studios , Twentieth century fox, MGM, Paramount, Warner Bros and RKO, were forced to sell off their theatre chains. The biggest problem the studios faced was that “the theatres had contributed more to profits than either production of distribution- production, of course, can only become a profitable activity as a result of distribution and exhibition” (pg7 Hillier J , 1992, The New Hollywood). Changes had to be made in order to make distribution of productions profitable. The studio system worked on permanent studio facilities with a highly paid roster of stars and an extensive payroll of technicians and staff. It soon became clear th...
film can make or break a movie. Marketing a film takes up a great deal of the money that is