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Soil Composition Research

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As described above, Quaternary glacial-, glaciofluvial- and alluvial deposits are absent but may occure in protected relief positions. Primary soil-forming materials are the omnipresent Triassic trappean rocks. After Sokolov et al. (2002) soils in this province mainly develop from residuum of bedrocks or from their loose derivatives of colluvial and solifluctional origin. In general mineral and chemical composition of the “sediment mantles” resemble underlying bedrock (Sokolov et al., 2002).

Due to the low thermal regimes chemical weathering is hampered, while physical, cryopedogenic processeses dominate soil genesis. Cryopedogenic processes that leeds to gelic materials after USDA (2009) primarily based on the physical volume change of water to ice of 9 % and back. Moreover on thermal contractions of frozen materials by continued cooling and moisture migration in a frozen system along a thermal gradient (Bockheim et al., 1997). Beside cryopedogenic processes tree major soil forming processes are reported for the samping site by Sokolov et al. (2002). (1) Braunification leeds to primitive soils with weak, shallow, cambic horizons describe in Sokolov et al. (2002) described as Typical Pale soils (from Russian Palevye). In Soil Taxonomy they have an Haplic epipedon, not to be mistaken with Pale prefix in the nomenclature. They have a relatively homogeneous profile with almost no vertical difference in texture, as result of development from colluvial or solifluction deposits. Usually Pale soils are covered by a raw-humus layer. (2) Podsolization, an descendant relocation of low molecular organomineral compounds (Chelate; Al-Fe-humus complexes) in acidic soils due to hampered microbial turnover (Scheffer und Schachtschabel, 2002). ...

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... is generally the lacking nutrient in northern ecosystem soils, and the key determinate of C stocks, sequestration and vegetation growth rates. The short growing season in high latitude support also C and N accumulation rather turnover.

Following Walker (1996) we can summarize control mechanisms for element movement and nutrient cycling in permafrost affected soils by the following points: “(1) parent material characteristics and weathering rates; (2) migration of water and heat during freezing; (3) biotic components present in the plant canopy and the relative rates of production and decomposition; (4) enzymatic activity rates of soil organisms; (5) vertical and horizontal movement of water trough the soil during the growing season”. The interaction of the outlined factors control the processes of primary production and turnover which in turn affect C dynamics.