CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Soil overview Soil is a complex medium consists of many chemical and minerals, but to ease understanding on this study, soil can be referred as combination of solid mineral and organic particles and pore. Pores allow air and water to move in between soil particles. Compaction and force applied on top of soil cause reduction in pore volume. As an example, frequent road used by tractor have less pore compare to un touch soil. Ideal silt-loam soil composed of mineral particles, organic matter and pore space.
Podzol soils are moderately to strongly leached soils in forests and in humid regions. They are not naturally very productive for agriculture. Chernozem soils (from Russian for "black earth") have a dark surface layer underlain by more lightly colored soil. They typically develop under grasses while the temperate is cool. Subhumid climates are highly productive, although they require fertilizers after a long use.
First of all, the soil is nutrient poor, thin, and acidicPodzolization occurs as a result of the acid soil solution produced under needleleaf trees. The main soil order associated with the taiga is spodosol. This means that only a certain amount of animals and plants can live there.There is usually only one or a few species of plants in a stand in a particular area. These include different species of spruce, pine, or fir, and often there is a little undergrowth. There may also occasionally be deciduous species present, such as oak, birch, willow, or alder, in a particularly wet or disturbed area.
Specifically, a bog is "a peat accumulating wetland that has no significant inflows or outflows and supports acidophilic mosses, particularly sphagnum" (Gosselink and Mitsch 1993). The vast majority of bogs are located in the moist, cool boreal regions of North America and Eurasia. Bogs are also called "peatlands" because of the peat they accumulate, but "peatland" is a more general term that includes "minerotrophic" and "transition" peatlands. These wetlands also accumulate peat, but they differ topographically and hydrologically from bogs. True bogs (ombrotrophic peatlands) are characterized by peat layers higher than their surroundings; they are often called "raised bogs."
The vertical section from the surface were dig up to the parent material and designate them into different horizon on the basis of soils color, texture, structure etc. Sodic soils develop a dense prismatic or columnar structure below the surface horizon, which restrict the water/nutrient movemen... ... middle of paper ... ...raphical position of sodic soils were studied by micromorphological techniques (Pal et al., 2003) and indicated the soil stress in the thin section which is due to the Holocene tectonics and shows the variation of sodicity in different topographical position. Micromorphology is frequently been used to describe soil structure, normally by evaluating the sizes and shapes of soil pores (Norton and Schroeder, 1987). Understanding the cause/process of formation of sodic soil will help in its management and reclamation. The thin section technique of micromorphology will help in better understanding for the identifications, distributions, and quantifications of sodic soils along with physical and chemical methods.
Away from the optimum physical conditions become hostile and production/ yields decline. The optimum is the area where yields are highest and variability best, where soils are fertile, temperature and rainfall ideal and ground surface level for cultivation. Farmers will take account of physical conditions at a local scale when considering which crops to grow. For example, the Moray coast in NE Scotland between Elgin and Lossiemouth is a rich agricultural area where winters are relatively mild and summers averaging 17oC, rainfall occurs throughout the year and is typically 600mm. There are a variety of soils but mainly glacial sandy loams on the higher ground and alluvial soils where there were once areas of open marshy conditions.
Moran et al., (2002) showed that scatter plots of remotely sensed (RS) surface temperature and VI often yield trapezoid shapes and explained this, by the differences in surface properties related to the effect on VI/Ts slopes for similar surface and atmospheric conditions. These trapezoid plots span a variety of surface types. The maximum Ts agree with bare soil conditions and the lowest Ts with full vegetation cover (VC). The interpretation of Ts for sparse VC, which is widespread in semi-arid regions, is not straightforward. Studies hav... ... middle of paper ... ... surface energy balance model.
CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Soil. Soil is referred to as the topmost part of the earth’s surface which forms a loose layer of varying thicknesses, it consist of unconsolidated products of rock erosion and organic decay, along with bacteria and fungi. Soil development results from climate and living matter acting upon parent material as conditioned by the topography over time (brady and weil, 2012). In other terms as stated by different authors, soil is usually a combination of actions, such as wearing or breaking down of rocks by weathering, the interaction of dissolved silicates present in the parent rock with various soluble salts to form clay minerals and the decomposition of vegetables and plant matter (Scott 1977, Rigassi and CRETerre-
However, it usually contain clay that is non-sticky and very workable (University of Hawai‘i, 2014). Bouwman (1990) stated that ultisols are frequently high in aluminium saturation and the cation exchange capacities (CEC) are saturated with less than 35 % base-cations. Although they are low availability of nutrient, with adequate liming, the addition of organic matter, fertilizer application, and with proper management, these soils can be agriculturally productive soils of Malaysia (Kim, 2000). In conclusion, there are three major type of soil and they are differentiated by the region where they are formed and its soil structure associated with the environments of the soils.
The land is made up of mineral soils, with few outcrops of underlying sandstone and shale. This land was created when the weight of glaciers depressed the Hudson Bay region and the ocean waters flooded areas up to 300 km inland from the current coastline. Then, during the retreat of the huge continental ice sheets, drainage into the Hudson Bay was blocked and lakes (Agassiz and Ojibway for example) were formed along th... ... middle of paper ... ...-ums are also common. Species of fish in streams and lakes in the Hudson Plains include northern pike, walleye, and brook trout. SUMMARY STATEMENT The Hudson Plains ecozone, in northern Ontario and parts of Manitoba and Quebec, is an area of wetlands.