Mineralization process is carried out by the microorganisms in which it releases carbon, and also ammonium (Sprent, 1987). As a result, many kinds of organic reduce nitrogen present, like urea, organic bases, such as purines and pyrimidines, and amino compounds. Animals have nitrogenous wastes and will eventually produce lots of nitrogen (Sprent, 1987). Several pathways are illustrated throughout the nitrogen cycle, such as nitrogen fixation, ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Gates (1921) stated that the process of converted gaseous nitrogen into ammonia or ammonium is nitrogen fixation, while ammonium can also be produced through the decaying of nitrogenous organic substance, which is called ammonification.
The enzyme nitrogenase is responsible in catalyzing the entire reaction occurs during nitrogen fixation by adding electrons and hydrogen ion (Haider & Schaffer, 1993). The second stage in the nitrogen cycle is nitrification which can further divide into two phase. The first phase is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. The ... ... middle of paper ... ...obert, L. S. (1990). Ecology and Field Biology (4th ed.).
The Nitrogen Cycle is the Most Important Biogeochemical Cycle The nitrogen cycle is an important cycle to the atmosphere. Nitrogen is an essential part of the biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acid, which makes nitrogen essential for all living organisms. Nitrogen makes up 78 percent of the atmosphere. There are five steps in the nitrogen cycle between the abiotic environment and the organisms: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, and dentrification. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia.
It is an important element in plant nutrition certain bacteria in the soil convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form, such as nitrate, that can be absorbed by plants, a process called nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen in the form of protein is an important component of animal tissue. The element occurs in the combined state in minerals, of which saltpeter (KNO3) and Chile saltpeter (NaNO3) are highly important products.Nitrogen combines with other elements only at very high temperatures or pressures. It is converted to an active form by passing through an electric discharge at low pressure. The nitrogen produced is very active, combining with alkali metals to form azides with the vapor of zinc, mercury cadmium, and arsenic to form nitrides and with many hydrocarbons to form nitriles.
Also, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Joseph Priestley were studied this gas. The last one was the chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal in 1832 who Was suggested Latin term nitrogenium from the Greek nitro. It was appointed the N later in 19th century. Plants produce proteins composite nitrogenous easy dissolved in the soil. Some nitrogen dissolved in the soil comes from the atmosphere to form nitric acid, reacts nitrogen with oxygen in the event of lightning component of numerous compounds known as oxides of nitrogen, which in turn react with water consisting of nitric acid, which endured rain to the soil.
Among the main processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification. Nitrogen is present in the environment in chemical forms such as organic nitrogen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, nitrous oxide, or inorganic nitrogen gas. Organic nitrogen may be in the form of a living organism, humus or in the intermediate products of organic matter decomposition. The processes of the nitrogen cycle are carried out by microbes. Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites through atmospheric, industrial and biological processes.
According to Stanford and Smith (1972), those factors include soil moisture, pH level, temperature, microbial biomass, and amounts of other nutrients. Three of the more significant and interrelated influences--microbial biomass, temperature, and moisture--are discussed here. This is certainly not an exhaustive list of factors influencing soil nitrogen mineralization, but instead, a general overview of the more significant considerations. Microbial Processes Microbial decay of organic material is the main release process of soil nitrogen. Nitrogen is released from microbial decay in the form of ammonium, but can also be immobilized by microbes which take up nitrate and ammonium to satisfy their own requirements.
There 's lot of nitrogen in air – about 78% of the air is nitrogen. Because nitrogen is so unreactive, it cannot be used directly by plants to make protein. Only nitrates are useful to plants, so we are dependent on other processes to convert nitrogen to nitrates in the
Generally, the nitrogen cycle is the conversion of nitrogen gas to various forms in the atmosphere. Nitrogen gas is abundant mainly in the atmosphere, which consists of approximately 78% in the atmosphere (Galloway et al., 2004). The nitrogen gas in the atmosphere cannot be used by organisms directly. Nitrogen gas can only be used when it is converted into inorganic or organic compounds. According to Schindler (2011), the key process in nitrogen cycle is nitrogen fixation, a process to reduce nitrogen gas into ammonia through the actions of bacteria.
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