Starting in book 2 from 376d and on into book 3 of The Republic, Socrates and Adeimantus discuss the type of education the young guardians, the future rulers and protectors of the city should receive. They feel that the young men should be strong, quick, courageous and educated. They agree that they should receive a physical education for their bodies and an education in music and poetry for their souls. Unlike physical training, an education in music and poetry can begin at a very young age, at the age when most young people are very impressionable. Socrates feels that “the young are incapable of judging what is allegory and what is not, and the opinions they form at that age tend to be ineradicable and unchangeable.”(378d) Socrates feels that it is of the highest importance that the first stories young men should hear are improving stories, ones which contribute to the betterment of the individual’s mind and soul. The stories should give an idea of how they should live their lives and the types of values they should acquire. They should communicate values like fairness in their dealing with others and respect for the family and the community. The unifying principle behind Socrates’ censorship is this: anything that would contribute to the corruption of the minds of young children or that would give them false values, whether it be true or false, should be censored.
Socrates (470-399 BC) was a credited philosopher born in the city of Athens to father Sophroniscus and mother Phaenarete. Despite his world-renowned contributions, he did not leave any written accounts of his life. His story was taught through the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, along with Aristotle and Aristophanes in various forms of dramatic texts and histories. Among others, Plato wrote many dialogues that quoted Socrates’ exact words. Much of what we know comes from this greatly influenced student. However, Plato being a literary artist, leads many to think that he brightened up Socrates’ teachings as a result of his positive bias. For this reason, much of his history remains uncertain.
Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher that was born in Athens, Greece around 470/469 BC. He served in the Athenian army and fought in many battles. When Socrates retired from fighting in the army, he began focusing on expressing his beliefs. He wasn’t the typical “teacher” or “preacher”; he was a very critical and analytical thinker that helped guide his students and the Athenians during his time. Through his teachings and beliefs, Socrates had positive and negative influence on the people during his time and modern time. Although he is credited as one of the founders of Western Philosophy, Political Philosophy, and Ethics, his teachings was in disagreement with the teachings of the democracy of Athens, which led to him being put to death. Along with his philosophical beliefs, Socrates’ great thinking led to the creation of the Socratic Method and the Socratic Paradoxes.
In The Clouds, Strepsiades greets his son after being taught the weaker speech by Socrates by saying, “Now you have, first, a negating a contradicting look, and the local color is simply blooming on you: the ‘what do you mean?’ and the reputation for suffering injustice when (I know!) you are doing injustice and working evil” (Aristophanes, 1170-1175). Aristophanes sees the unjust things that philosophers do. They challenge the conventional beliefs of society, not always to a greater end. Reason can support immoral action just as well as it can moral action, and that inconsistency is demonstrated by Aristophanes in the scene where Pheidippides is beating his father and threatens to beat his mother (Aristophanes, 1320-1451). Aristophanes is showing us that the discord and immorality associated with philosophy does nothing but cause problems for the citizens. Therefore, philosophers should be considered dangerous people to a society that values stability such as
Philosophers like Socrates had a huge impact on philosophers during that time as well as the philosophers today. During the Periclean Age, he was in Athens teaching philosophy of life to the people on the streets who cared enough to listen. The philosophy of Socrates mainly was the responsibility of people's moral attitudes. The teachings of Socrates were found to be understanding of life, recognizing the truth and speaking of the components that were used to a successful life. The teachings of his philosophy weren't appreciated much by the public in which he was sent to the trial with charges against him for his teachings towards the youth. It is very shocking to learn that the charges against him were the interference with the youth and unbelieving
Beowulf was a Geatish warrior. He went to the Danes in order to fight the dragon, Grendal. Beowulf's goal was to prove his strength and courage by defeating this horrible demon that had been terrorizing the Danes for a while. The King of the Danes holds a great fest in Beowulf's honour, during which Beowulf boasts of past accomplishments. Grendal comes during the feast to once again, terrorize the Danes. Beowulf fights the Demon with no weapons and proves his strength to be greater than Grendal's. As Grendal tries to escape, Beowulf rips his arm off. Grendal goes back to swamp where he dies. Beowulf fought the dragon with no weapon in order to prove his great strength even without a weapon. The Danes greatly rejoiced in Beowulf's great show of power and ability by killing Grendal. Grendal's mother however, determined to extract revenge for Grendal's death. She killed one of the Danes, Aeschere, the King's most trusted adviser, and then went back to her swamp. When the Danes mourn the death Beowulf says to the King, "Wise sir, do not grieve. It is always better to avenge dear ones than to indulge in mourning. For every one of us, living in this world means waiting for our end. Let whoever can win glory before death. When a warrior is gone, that will be his best and only bulwark." By saying this Beowulf shows that his reason for everything he does is to win glory before his death. He also firmly believes that revenge is better than mourning. To avenge Aeschere's death the Danes went to the swamp. Beowulf dove into the swamp to fight Grendal's mother. Fighting underwater, Beowulf defeated her and then cut the head off the corpse of Grendal, which was at the bottom of the swamp, as a prize. Beowulf departs from the Danes and went on...
In the last days of Socrates’ life while he awaits his death sentence, he examines and evaluates the facets of life and the morals that come as a part of human nature. He analyzes the concept of being, and what it means to be either living or deceased and through this analysis, Socrates particularly goes in depth with his examination of the human soul. In Phaedo, Plato meets with a follower who had been with Socrates on his last day, on which he talked much about the innermost qualities of being; life and death and how the soul constitutes those two entities. According to Socrates, there are four arguments that prove the existence of the soul: the Argument from Opposites, the Theory of Recollection, the Affinity Argument, and the Theory of Forms.
The thought that has tortured creators forever is that “nothing is original.” Ideas build upon ideas and nothing is ever original. In 470-399 BC, Socrates had a lot to say about many ideas. Although, one of the most controversial ones was his view on life and death. It is still a controversial matter today. Socrates’ views have shaped Western culture in the direction of shaming suicide, accepting that the body and soul are two different things, and the body and soul separate at death. Due to the views of Socrates, it is hard for many Westerners to accept the idea of assisted suicide, brain death, and comatose states. Socrates’ views have fostered medical ethics, religious views, disciplinary action, and entertainment in Western society today.
The Life of Socrates
I. Socrates The most interesting and influential thinker in the fifth century was Socrates, whose dedication to careful reasoning transformed the entire enterprise. Since he sought genuine knowledge rather than mere victory over an opponent, He familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Lonian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Socrates employed the same logical tricks developed by the Sophists to a new purpose, the pursuit of truth. Thus, his willingness to call everything into question and his determination to accept nothing less than an adequate account of the nature of things make him the first clear exponent of critical philosophy.
Socrates political, moral and social obligations are linked to a theory called the Social Contract Theory. The overall intent of the social contract is meant to enhance the society we live in and promotes a sound, balanced, law abiding society. Socrates illustrates to Crito, that he must accept his punishment administered to him by Athens law. Furthermore, he exemplifies that the laws he has obeyed his entire life, allowed him to thrive within Athens (Friend). He indicates that he made a conscious decision, when he reached the age of maturity, he would reside in Athens. He was fully aware of the laws and how the Athenian government handled justice. Although, the social contract is not signed legal binding contract, Socrates feels fully obligated