Puerto Rico and Cuba are known to be the two wings of the same bird, mostly because of their great similarities in history, culture, and struggles; yet, because of their differences in achieving their goals of self-government. Cuba was able to have full independence from Spain and have its own form of government; nonetheless, Puerto Rico, after achieving its independence from Spain, was annexed by the United States of America toward the conclusion of the Spanish-American War. Both of these islands, under Spanish rule, survived violent political policies and excessive military personnel in their lands and were able to achieve a form of sovereignty. Puerto Rico and Cuba were the final colonies of Spain in the Western Hemisphere; Cuba gained independence, yet Puerto Rico achieved a different form of sovereignty by becoming a territory of the United States. Moreover, this annexation of Puerto Rico with the US creates a democratic form of colonization; known popularly as a Commonwealth, but to the world Puerto Rico is still known as the oldest colony in the world. It is believed by many that 1898 was a year of liberation and domination because of the Spanish-American War (García 39). After the war had concluded Puerto Rico had finally, after centuries of Spanish rule, been free of the tyrannical policies of the Spanish government in the island; moreover, this led to the clear pavement of the path for domination of the island of Puerto Rico by the United States. For the years to come once the US takes control of Puerto Rico, US military leaders in order to create a stable political, economical, and social environment governed the people of Puerto Rico. After years of legislation and negotiations from Puerto Rico’s leadership, in 1952... ... middle of paper ... ...14, 2012). By Rafael, Hernandez Colon. 1998. "Puerto Rico: Statehood Or Status Quo? --- Separate Cultures Keep Us Apart." Wall Street Journal, Jul 23, 1-A16. http://search.proquest.com.esearch.ut.edu/docview/398785262?accountid=14762. Christopher Schmidt-Nowara. "Politics and Ideas in Latin American Independence." Latin American Research Review 45, no. 2 (2010): 228-235. http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed November 14, 2012). Gervasio, Luis Garcia. 2000. "I Am the Other: Puerto Rico in the Eyes of North Americans, 1898." The Journal of American History 87 (1): 39-64. http://search.proquest.com.esearch.ut.edu/docview/224901779?accountid=14762. Emilio Pantojas-García. “The Puerto Rican Paradox: Colonialism Revisited, 2005.” University of Texas Press Latin American Research Review 40.3 (2005) 163-176 "PUERTO RICO: HOY, AYER Y MANANA." Impacto: 4. Jun 14 1994. ProQuest. Web.
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For four hundred years Spain ruled over an immense and profitable global empire that included islands in the Caribbean, Americas, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. After the Napoleonic Wars (1808-1815) many of Spain’s colonies followed the US’s lead, fighting and winning their independence. These revolts, coupled with other nations chipping away at Spain’s interests, dwindled Spain’s former Empire. By 1860, only Cuba and Puerto Rico were what remained of Spain’s former Empire. Following the lead of other former Spanish colonies, Cuban fighters started their campaign for independence, known as the Ten year war (1868-1878). This war developed into a Cuban insurgency which fought a guerilla war against the Spanish occupation.2
In order to understand the current situation of Puerto Ricans one must look at their history and retrace the sequence of events that led to the current formation of the Puerto Rican people. An important component of this history is the time Puerto Rico spent under Spanish rule. Studying this portion of Puerto Rican history forces us to acknowledge the contribution the Spaniards, European immigrants, and African slaves had on Puerto Rican identity as we consider it today. This also addresses contemporary debates on Puerto Rican identity. An example of this is evident in an essay written by Jose Luis Gonzales entitled "Puerto Rico : Th Four Storied Country". In the article Gonzales points out what he feels is a disregard toward the African contribution to the Puerto Rican identity. He argues that the first Puerto Ricans were black , based on his interpretation that Africans were the first group to come to Puerto Rico and reproduce who did not have ties to a "motherland" because they were slaves. This is unlike the Spaniard elites and Criolles that demonstrated their commitment and loyalty to Spain. Since they had no other place to go, Puerto Rico was their motherland. Gonzalez also points out that the culture of a region is always the culture of the elite, not the popular culture.
Section I,2. Analyze the consequences of American rule in Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines. Did the citizens prosper? Enjoy freedom? Accept American rule? Comment on the consequences for the United States with regard to the statement made by Eric Foner in the text, “Thus, two principles central to American freedom since the War of Independence – no taxation without representation and government based on the consent of the governed – were abandoned when it came to the nation’s new possessions.
Dawnes v. Bidwell, “Dawnes v. Bidwell Rules Puerto Rico Belongs to But Not Part of United States, 1901” ," in Major Problems in American Immigration History, ed. Mae M Ngai and Jon Gjerde (Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013),271
Puerto Rico is smallest and Eastern of the Greater Antilles. The north of Venezuela has left approximately to 500 miles, 80 miles to the east of the Spanish, and to 1.200 miles to the Southeastern of the city of Miami, in the North American state of Florida. The U.S.A. annexed to Puerto Rico to the closing of the Hispano-American War, in 1898. Within the American constitutional system, Puerto Rico is considered a "territory organized, not incorporated." This adjustment, formulated by the Supreme Court of the U.S.A. in a series of opinions known like the Insulars Decisions there by year 1903, treats to Puerto Rico like a foreign property of the U.S.A. in terms of internal relations, but like part of the North American national territory before the international law.
Puerto Rico spent most of its history under the control of Spain. In the year 1898, the islanders wanted their freedom and welcomed the U.S. invaders as their last hope of liberation from Spanish control. The United States brought the promise of democracy to Puerto Rico, but its true intentions did not include letting go of the island. Although the United States claimed that its intentions were to civilize Puerto Rico and help it become a democratic society, its hypocritical manner of dealing with the island had a great impact on Puerto Rican development. The early years of U.S. colonization affected many aspects of Puerto Rico, including economics, politics, and social relations.
For most of its history, Puerto Rico has been controlled by an outside power, and its people oppressed. While Puerto Rico is currently a U.S. territory, Spanish colonialism has had a significant impact on the island’s development and identity. The history of the island itself is proof of this fact, demonstrating each step Puerto Rico took to reach its current state. By examining the stages of Spanish control that Puerto Rico experienced, we can determine how each stage affected the structure and identity of Puerto Rico.
Such inequality was not the only thing early Puerto Rican migrants experienced on the island. They also experienced severe economic set backs. Under the domination of the United States, Puerto Rico did not have control over their means of production. Instead, the United States possessed that power and transformed their island into a metropolitan economy. Workers were subjected to the changing demands of US capital expansion, and their migratory movements were shaped accordingly.
Puerto Rico is a small island in the Caribbean that holds a vast, and rich culture. Due to its accessible geographical location, it is often called the key to the Caribbean. Puerto Rico enriched its people with one of the most innate and unique culture different from the rest of the world. The colonization of Spaniards left us not only with myriad architectural heritage, but also with language and cultural traditions that beholds Hispanic imagery and representations. Our music, our love of dancing and festivities, as well as our practice of Catholic beliefs represents
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Puerto Rico was attacked by the Dutch and English, Spain’s enemies. The island was struggling to attain economical stability by raising cattle and farming on a small scale. By the end of the nineteenth century, Puerto Rico had grown considerably socially, economically, and politically. The Cédula de Gracias of 1815 offered many incentives and advantages the immigrants of the new Latin American republics. Puerto Rico became a sugar exporting colony. After the Spanish-American War in 1898, Puerto Rico was ceded by Spain to the United States. In 1917, Puerto Ricans became U.S. citizens and adopted the Commonwealth state in 1952.
After the Spanish-American war, Spain granted the United States with full ownership of the island of Puerto Rico, which largely benefited the United States with profitable agricultural land, in the same way, Puerto Rican citizens were all benefited when they received U.S. citizenship, this granted them with greater opportunities that awaited them in the United States. However, despite their citizenship, Puerto Ricans are yet to have a vote in national U.S. elections. The ownership of the island has mostly benefited the United States as it is able to control the land, and impose tax and restrictions. Due to this, Puerto Rico transformed from a local economy, to one that is dominated by external U.S. companies. Because of many programs that have been implemented in order to stimulate economic development, the economy has progressed. However, one of the negative side effects left the population dealing with high income tax, as well as leading the economy further away from the local farmers and into the capitalist economy of the United States. It seems as if the relationship between the United States and Puerto Rico benefit the capitalist country and its economy but fails to befit much of the islands population as they are later faced with high income tax and high unemployment rates. Because of the high unemployment, the Puerto
Scholars have debated not only the nature of Iberian colonialism, but also the impact that independence had on the people of Latin America. Historian Jaime E. Rodriguez said that, “The emancipation of [Latin America] did not merely consist of separation from the mother country, as in the case of the United States. It also destroyed a vast and responsive social, political, and economic system that functioned well despite many imperfections.” I believe that when independence emerged in Latin America, it was a positive force. However, as time progressed, it indeed does cause conflict.