The economic system and ideology of Capitalism modifies the patterns of social, political and economic relations justifying a culture of Social Darwinism. As Capitalism modifies culture, its connection to Social Darwinism becomes obvious. The success of Capitalism is derived from the backs of the working class. Capitalism establishes a culture of paternalism that limits the autonomy of organizations, society, and the state. The social mobility of the poor and working classes is denied, and their condition is seen as voluntary.
Although the Progressive ideal was presented by numerous Progressive authors of different genre, together they all presented the impact of the economic, political, social, and moral reforms of the American Society. The Progressive authors were arranged by challenges of which they offered their opinions, including psychological and sociological, economic and historical, legal, and religious. The first psychological Progressive author, William James laid the groundwork for much of the Progressive thoughts in his book, Principle of Psychology (1890). Throughout the book James challenged the fortitude and pessimism of Social Darwinists, by arguing that humans could control their own process of evolution. The other psychological author, Lester Frank Ward authored Dynamic Sociology (1883).
One great example of this adaptation of the biological concept of evolution, is the appearance of Social Darwinism during the 19th century. Social Darwinism, by definition, is the principle that "the survival of the fittest" applies to human ethics and politics just as it does to biological evolution. (1) The theory of Social Darwinism was introduced by Herbert Spencer. The theory was then used by White Protestants, men, and others to proliferate the idea that they were socially superior. However, the context in which this paper will discuss the theory of Social Darwinism is economic.
Coupled with falling birth rates among the elite and rising birth rates among immigrants, Anglo-culture sought out an answer to defend itself against the “siege” of “inferior” cultures. The late nineteenth century saw the rise of “eugenics” throughout academia. Founded by Francis Galton (the word came into existence in 1893), eugenics was the study of the selection of favorable traits in society. Deeply influenced by Darwin, Galton published his first eugenicist tract in 1865 Hereditary Genius, which posited that man’s strength, talent, and skill is passed down genetically fr... ... middle of paper ... ...“degenerate” or “inferior.” Popularized in the early twentieth, it manifested itself throughout American culture from textbooks to advertisements for household goods. Eugenics represented American culture’s vain attempt to grapple with non-western European cultures and cope with a quickly evolving social landscape.
What should be the state's role in the development process? Why has there been a neoliberal backlash against government involvement in development? In theory, the role of the state in development should be a small one. Instead of following outmoded socialist central planning policies akin to those of the Eastern bloc in the twentieth century, poor countries should emulate the West and open up its markets to international trade; encourage the development of a vibrant and dynamic private sector; ensure that government spending is kept to a minimum; privatise all manner of inefficient and wasteful state-owned industries and overall, let the free market do its job. At least, that is the theory.
Social Darwinism utilizes the important concept of natural selection from Charles Darwin and applies it to society (Drake, n.d).The Social Darwinism explains the survival of the fittest in the terms of the capability of... ... middle of paper ... ...trieved from http://www.debate.org/opinions/is-eugenics-ethical • Johnson, K. (August, 2013 23). Righting a wrong: Nc to pay victims of forced sterilization. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/8/23/righting-a-wrongnctopayvictimsofforcedsterilization.html • Kickler, T. L. ((2013)). Retrieved from http://www.northcarolinahistory.org/commentary/315/entry • Lutz, K. (10/21/12). Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~lkaelber/eugenics/NC/NC.html • Pozgar, G. (2012).
The theory developed by Charles Darwin in 1859 in his book The Origin of Species is considered not only one of the greatest scientific discoveries ever but, also a system of knowledge that revolutionized the fundamental patterns of thought. This discovery was the theory of evolution. The theory of evolution shattered old beliefs and philosophies and imposed the necessity for building new ones. Two of the great ideologies that developed from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution are Darwinism and Social Darwinism. These two ideologies are often linked to each other and to some extent are intertwined in each other.
These leaders showed how people develop their traits through their family. Another leader in American eugenics fought to have laws to control the spread of “inferior blood” to the general people. Eugenicist want to make a genetically enhanced race. Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher and political theor... ... middle of paper ... ... http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/46481.aspx Eugenics from BookRags Student Essays. ©2000-2006 by BookRags, Inc. All rights reserved.