Major Depressive Disorder, according to Coon, is a mood disorder in which the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression. Major Depressive Disorder falls under mood disorders subtopic depressive disorders (Coon 2013). “Psychologist have come to realize that mood disorders (major disturbances in emotion) are among the most serious of all psychological conditions. In any given year, roughly 9.5 percent of the U.S. population suffers from a mood disorder (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011a)” (Coon 2013). I was one of the 9.5 percent. I have decided to write on this topic because I want to understand what causes it. I have been depressed before without medication or counseling and I wanted to know why do you get depressed and how does it impact you. This essay will talk about disorder information, disorder triggers, research on depression, treatment for depression, and theorist’s experiments for Major Depression Disorder.
Thoits, P. A. (1986). Social Support As Coping Assistance.. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 416-423.
The Bever family didn’t socialize very much. “By many neighbors’ accounts, the Bevers kept out of sight and to themselves — the kids played alone in the backyard, walked down neighborhood streets bunched together and their parents didn’t socialize much.” (Schallhorn). Communication, the skill that all children and children need to master. Not socializing with other kids at a young age is substandard because children need this when they are younger. “As many as 1 in every 33 children may have depression; in teens, that number may be as high as 1 in 8.” (Understanding Depression). The teens in youth today are being effected by depression. As you can see, depression is very common among teens around 12-18 years old. Depression can persuade people to make different choices than they normally would. Being effected this young could have long term effects in the long run. When people commit crimes it is either because they aren’t being helped and no one will listen to them, or they just don’t care. Your mental health starts from the day you are born. You constantly learn about your surroundings, so it can be a benefit to have social interaction from an early
The assumptions are that there is inwardly directed anger, introjection of love object loss, severe superego demands, excessive narcissistic, oral, and anal personality needs, loss of self-esteem, and deprivation in the mother child relationship during the first year. It was first Freud’s belief, and then other psychodynamic supporters. Freud also believed that many different cases of depression were in fact biological. He stated that there had to be triggers to make these changes in the brain. One life change that he focused a large amount of research on is depression can be connected to loss or rejection by a parent early on in life. Depression is much like grief in this sense, it is a reaction to the loss of an important relationship or person. These findings are supported better than most other research in the field of psychology. But there are still room for so many questions.
...ome depressed you might end up hanging out with different peer groups than before and may begin to get involved in delinquent behavior, which in turn could focus on more serious subjects such as substance abuse and suicidal behaviors. One of the things I found very interesting was Baron and Kenny’s mediation model because it can be used in all different circumstances and studies, not just the one that I looked at. I also found it interesting that such high numbers were found on the questionnaires when asking about the suicide attempts and more than one attempts since I never figured it to be so high, especially among college students. One of the things I thought of right away was part of their hypothesis, in which the main and simple reason was because the stress was getting to them. The article seemed interesting as well as informed, factual and thought-provoking.
Wilson, Judith K. 1,2; Rapee, Ronald M. 1Interpretative Biases in Social Phobia: Content Specificity and the Effects of Depression. Cognitive Therapy & Research. 29(3):315-331, June 2005.
According to the first stage in the model, Mary's early childhood experience is the primary contributor to her depression. Mary had experienced an instable childhood; her parents deemed unfit to care for her, leading to separation by Child Youth Services when she was two. This family dysfunction (by definition, disturbance or abnormality, not referring to abuse) provides the first risk factor of her depression. Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Studies have shown that destructive consequences on adult mental health are directly correlated by household dysfunction during childhood (Chapman et al., 2004). Freud's philosophy and the humanistic theory explains how this is a risk to Mary's depression, suggesting that humans possess an id that seeks gratification of unconditional acceptance (Reid & Sanders, 2010). It shows that Mary’s early family dysfunction forms the basis of her negative core belief that no one wants her, as this initial rejection of acceptance poses a question to her sense of belonging. Since Tracey is deficit of acceptance at a very young age, she learns to blame her circumstance on internal causes, increasing the risk factor for her depression in adulthood (Kosslyn, Rosenberg & Lambert, 2014).
In a biological outlook on depression, abnormal genetic or biochemical processes incline some individuals to depression. Conversely, in a cognitive perspective, the way people understand events in their lives has a very important effect on their weakness to depression. One example of a cognitive perspective is the hopelessness theory in which people believe that negative events in their lives are stable and global in that it will last “forever” and will affect everything he or she does causing a maladaptive cognitive (Alloy, Abramson, Francis, 1999). This article proposes that negatively biased negative self description provides the foundation for a cognitive vulnerability to depression. That is, a person whose mind set is negatively biased when processing information about one’s self may be particularly vulnerable to depression. For instance, when confronted with an unfamiliar situation, a vuln...
A risk factor, is any factor that contributes to increasing the likeliness of contracting the illness. Depression has a variety of causes and risk factors,“Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in later life with potential consequences on disability (Forsell and Winblad, 1999; Papadopoulos et al., 2005), mortality (Preville et al., 2005; Luppa et al., 2007), and institutionalization (Luppa et al., 2010a) with prevalence rates that vary enormously between 4.5% and 37.4% (Luppa et al., 2010b). There are several factors correlating to the occurrence of depressive symptoms in older adults such as poor activities of daily living scores, poor cognitive abilities, chronic physical illness (Liu et al., 1997), and having a poor social support network” ( Schwarzbach, 2014). This can be interpreted as the social identity having a high effect on whether or not depression is caused in older people.Why is this such a risk factor? “Poor quality of social relations and perceived social support were found to be associated with depression in older adults. Thus, qualitative aspects of social relations are more important and more consistent than quantitative aspects. In addition to belonging to a social network, it seems necessary to have a close confidant. “Sharing concerns, offering nurturance, receiving guidance, the
The biological influences associated with depression include genes, chemical imbalance, and or damage to the anatomy of the brain. For example, genes are the personal blueprint of every individual, which maps out what a person is likely to inherit from generation to generation. These inherited gens predispose a person to inherit certain personality traits, physical features, medical and mental health condition such as depression. However, if these inherited genes do not become active by an environmental influence such as the loss of a loved one or a job, there is no guarantee that a condition will take place (NIMH, 1998). In a study by Sullivan, Neale, and Kendler (2000), the implications of genetic influences is evident that familial aggregation (x2 = 97.7, df = 1, p > 0.00005) runs in biological families (first-degree relatives such as parents and children) with major depression. In addition, the twin studies indicate a higher genetic influence in identical twin (who share identical genes) a...
Of the millions of people who lived in camps during the Holocaust, there were about two thousand twins who were experimented on. They were the pride of a German man who worked at Auschwitz from 1943-1945. His name was Dr. Josef Mengele. He was researching human genetics and diseases. He liked this one certain group more than he liked the rest though. He would always handpick them out so he could do research on them and their family history. Being a twin in Auschwitz was worse that working in a camp, because they were separated from their families, experimented on, and brutally murdered.
WENZLAFF, R.M. and PROHASKA, M. L., 1989. When misery prefers company: Depression, attributions, and responses to others' moods. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, pp.220-233.
The struggle to battle with the persistent grief of self-blame and lack of identity is a constant reminder to the barriers in relationships. Leroy grieves over the fact that he has lost his identity as a father and husband. Although he often thinks of Randy, the memories of him have faded. As a result, he latches on to Norma Jean but she doesn’t respond back. This causes him to feel like a failure of a husband. Norma Jean is grieving over the emptiness in her life. It was not the life she thought she would have. Her deceased son symbolizes her emptiness because of his death. She also feels emptiness towards her husband. For example, she feels very uncomfortable around him and always tries to find something for him to do. When Leroy arrives back home from his accident Mason implies, “he thinks she’s seems a little disappointed” (Mason 220), displaying Norma Jean frustrated with his lying around doing nothing but watching television and smoking pot. In addition, Norma Jean feels emptiness towards her mother, which is presented in the way her mother criticizes her. When tragedies occur in a family and self-confidence fades it can take over your life a...
Lizabeth feels conflicted when she overheard her mother and father arguing as her father displayed distress over the fact that he could not support his family.When Lizabeth awoke in the middle of the night as her mother returned home, she she overheard her parents arguing and realized that her life was not as simple as she had once thought. Her father that she had once remembered as the strong, hardworking parent, was crying to her mother, “who was small and soft”, about how he could not support his family. This is new and unfamiliar to Lizabeth, and she feels as though, “The world had lost its boundary lines...Everything was suddenly out of tune, like a broken accordion… I do not now remember my thoughts, only feelings of great bewilderment and fear.” (8). While she had once understood her family’s dynamics, Lizabeth now feels confused and frightened as her view of her parents who she once believed she could lean on in times of need, was changed and they were not as perfect as the once thought. Not only was her family affected, but so was the rest of her town, her race, and much of her country, and all was the effect of The Depression. She is in conflict at what to think, and is upset and unsettled to this new knowledge that she has just gained, and how it has changed her
In the Olson’s family, time was critical for their lives’ development. As time went by, the Olson’s family situation got worse. John could not find a job; Susan did not like how John was taking care of the house, the unemployment benefits from John were running out and the death of the youngest child occurred. Smith and Hamon (2012) explain that unexpected life events on families can bring pressure, especially when those life events are not taking place in accordance with their life cycle. Smith and Hamon (2012) declare that when two events take place at the same time or close from one another, it causes the family development to experiences some difficulties. In the Olson’s family, the loss of John’s job and the death of Patty caused their development to suffer because two drastic events happened too close from one