SCIENCE REPORT AMMONIUM NITRATE NH4NO3 Problem Our task was to investigate what the optimum ratio of solute to solvent that will produce the maximum cooling/heating effect? Hypothesis With a smaller quantity of water (50mls) and the same amount of Ammonium Nitrate added. After any period of time the mixture will be a cooler temperature than that of a mixture with a larger quantity of water. Variables „X Water „X Teaspoons „X Time „X Ammonium Nitrate „X Thermometer „X Stirring (used thermometer) „« Changed/Uncontrolled Variables - The amount of times the mixture was stirred. We stirred the mixture until the Ammonium Nitrate was dissolved, so the amount of times we stirred after each teaspoon was different.
Variables Ways to control variables Independent : Temperature of water used Heat the water with different temperature and measure it using thermometer which are 5˚C , 28˚C, 40˚C, 60˚C and 80˚C Dependent : Rate of reaction between Eno and water Measure the time taken for the lid of plastic container to pop out using stopwatch. Calculate the rate of reaction by using the formula : rate= 1/t Controlled : Volume of water Amount of Eno used Size of plastic container. Measure the amount of water using 20 cm3 measuring cylinder Weigh and fix the amount of Eno used that is 1g using electronic weighing balance Use the same size of plastic container which is 40 cm3 in volume. Table 1 shows the variables and ways to control all the variables of the experiment Materials and Apparatus Material and apparatus Quantity Eno (5.00 ± 0.01 g) Plastic container 5 Water (100.0 ±
The tube is placed in a water bath so that the gas is at a constant temperature. The pressure is increased in steps and at each step, the height is measured and recorded. ... ... middle of paper ... ... CONCLUSION: The basic principle governing this experiment is Boyle’s law. “Boyle’s law states that provided temperature is constant, the volume of a given amount of gas will vary inversely with the pressure in the container.” The experiment proved to satisfy Boyle’s law and this can be deduced from the relationship shown on Figure 3.3 which shows a direct proportionality to the inverse of height which is also an inverse proportionality to height.
The values of and were adjusted according to the critical temperatures from the M vs. T curves (Fig. 1) at atmospheric pressure for sample heating and cooling (table 1). It is worth noticing that fixes the Curie temperature and is responsible for the existence of first order magnetic phase transition and fixes the thermal hysteresis of about 5 K. Table 1 shows the values of our model parameters adjusted to fit the experimental data for the pressures 1.5, 2.0 and 2.9 kbar. Values of model parameters used in the theoretical curves adjusted at zero magnetic field. Figure 2 shows the isothermal entropy changes heating the sample (a), (b) and (c) and (the figure 3 cooling the sample (a), (b) and (c)).
Dalton’s law states that the mole fraction of one liquid in the vapor is equal to the partial pressure of the liquid divided by the total pressure. These laws can help explain the process of fractional distillation. When a mixture of ethanol and water is heated, it will boil at a temperature between 78.3 C (the boiling point of pure ethanol) and 100 C (the boiling point of pure water). In fractional distillation, the vapor will condense on a surface. The condensate will then evaporate again and then condense on another surface.
Then we measured our pieces of Mg at 1.5 cm and determined that their mass was 1.36*10-2 g. We filled the pipet 2/3 full of HCl and poured it into one of the test tubes. Then, we covered the HCl with just enough H2O so that no H2O would be displaced when the stopper was inserted. After inserting the stopper, we placed the Mg strip into the hole, inverted the test tube and placed it in the 400ml beaker. HCl is heavier than H2O, so it floated from the tube, into the bottom of the beaker, reacting with the Mg along the way to produce hydrogen gas (H2). We then measured the volume of the H2, cleaned up our equipment and performed the experiment a second time.
The pH meter needed to be calibrated before the titration, and this was done by using coloured standards of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 10.0. The NaOH used within this practical was measured out in pellet form, and the amount needed was 0.4g of 0.1M NaOH. The NaOH was then dissolved into 100ml of distilled water by using a magnetic stir bar and a magnetic stirrer, which mixed the solution for around 120 seconds. After the NaOH had been dissolved, 25ml of 0.1M CH3COOH was measured into a measuring cylinder and was then transferred into a 100ml beaker. This was also placed onto the magnetic stirrer and a clean magnetic stirrer bar was then added to avoid any contamination before the NaOH had been added.
To accurately measure the body temperature, each degree on the scale consists of 10 units of 0.1 degrees Celsius. To return to the initial position of the thermometer in order to further the application and temperature measurements, it is necessary to shake the " thermometer ", thus returning the mercury back into the tank. The benefits of a mercury thermometer: • Medical mercury thermometer, due to its characteristics, whose performance is most accurate, and highly similar to the gas thermometer readings, which is considered the reference thermometer. Therefore mercury thermometer precisely measures the temperature thermometers rest of the human body. • While other less mercury thermometer exposed to extraneous factors and conditions of temperature measurement.
This is by using the same mass and realizing that the specific heat of both the regular water and the hot water are the same. In our procedure, 100 mL of hot water was mixed with 100 mL of the regular water; therefore, the masses in Equation 3 cancel out (the densities of the water at different temperatures aren’t exactly the same, but the difference is negligible). This leads to the change in temperature of the hot water equaling the negative change of temperature in the regular water, shown as: (4) Using Equation 4, it can be inferred that the initial temperature of the hot water minus the change in temperature of the mixture equals the temperature of the cold water plus the change in temperature of the mixture (Equation 5). This is then rearranged to indicate that the initial temperature of the hot water is two times the change in temperature plus the initial temperature of the regular water. This is shown in Equation 6.
In ZFC measurement, the ferrite sample is cooled down to the liquid helium temperature in the absence of a field and then a moderate magnetic field is applied (500 Oe) and the temperature is gradually increased simultaneously the magnetization (M) values were recorded. In FC measurement, the ferrite sample is cooled in a non-zero magnetic field and similar procedure is followed as in ZFC measurement and M values were recorded. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 XRD analysis X-ray powder diffraction patterns of good quality were obtained for the samples using CuKα radiation of ... ... middle of paper ... ...a peak between 500C to 2000C which can be attributed to the burning of organic matter in the sample. A rapid decline in the weight in the temperature region 200 to 3500C can be ascribed to the loss of water molecules and decomposition of organics and nitrates.