Spinal cord injuries can range from minor, meaning the injured will recover, to very severe injuries that can cause significant damage to someone’s body and self-esteem. Approximately 12,000 people per year experience spinal cord injuries in the United States. 50% of all spinal cord injuries occur between the ages of 16 and 30 and 80% of all spinal cord injuries happen to males. The most common accidents that cause spinal cord injuries are motor vehicle accidents followed by falls, violence and then sports. There are two major types of spinal cord injuries, complete spinal cord injury and incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injuries can also cause other complications including respiratory, bladder control, skin sensation, circulation problems, muscle tone, sexual health, pain, depression, scoliosis, UTI and spasticity. Complete spinal cord injuries occur when one loses complete feeling and sensation typically resulting in paralysis below the injury. Incomplete spinal cord injuries mean there is still some feeling and movement below the injury site. One can experience different types of incomplete spinal cord injuries including anterior cord syndrome, central cord syndrome, brown-sequard syndrome, nerve cell injuries and spinal contusions. Currently there is no cure for spinal cord injuries. Causes of SCI:
As an occupation in the medical field, physical therapists have a very long strenuous list of duties. That list includes working with patients with limited use of their bodies due to injury or disability and improving mobility while reducing pain. Physical therapists provide care to people of all ages who have functional problems such as sprains, strains, fractures, arthritis, amputations, stroke, cerebral palsy, other injuries relating to sports, other injuries relating to work, other neurological disorders, and various other conditions. Some ways that physical therapist go about reducing pain levels of their patients is by using exercises, stretching, hands on therapy, and special equipment that is designed to help increase their mobility, prevent further injury, and smooth out the...
The spinal cord is a very complex and much needed structure. If injured in a sports activity, car accident, or by violence the affects can be devastating and life threatening. The symptoms of a spinal cord injury are easily recognized if you are paying attention. The body can experience many changes due to a spinal cord injury. The changes mostly depend on and where the spinal cord is injured and how severe the damage is to the spinal cord. Conclusion therapies for spinal cord injury have improved substantially in the last few years. Drugs for treatment of acute injury, neural prostheses , and advanced rehabilitation strategies are improving the survival and quality of life for many patients.
the spinal cord as well as UMN's in the cerebral cortex. In addition to the motor neurons, damage
Spinal cord injuries are excruciating, emotional and physical for people who endure these damages. The spinal cord has countless nerves that run down the back and carry signals back and forth form the body to the brain. These injuries are usually caused by a blow or dislocation of a vertebra on or around the spinal cord. The spinal cord does not usually cut through the vertebrae, but the vertebrae pieces press down on the nerves, which causes a very sharp pain. Spinal cord injuries can be categorized into complete or incomplet...
Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS helps to relay sensory information to the brain and spinal cord. The brain, in turn, will send communication back to the PNS in order to perform specific motor functions. Damage to any part of the PNS can result in a variety of symptoms, which can include tingling, prickliness, numbness, muscle wasting, and even paralysis. Peripheral neuropathies are known to have about 100 different types and are classified by which nerves they impact: sensory, motor, or autonomic. There are several causes for nerve injury, and some of these include physical trauma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, toxins, and metabolic disorders. Out of these, physical injury is the most common, and can occur as a result of accidents or falls. Nerve damage can have several outcomes, including completely severed, crushed, stretched, and even fully detached from the spinal cord. Once a nerve injury has occurred, there are several ways to diagnose the extent of damage. These can include a CT scan, MRI, Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), nerve biopsy, and a skin biopsy. Treatments are continuing to grow as more research becomes available, but there is optimism when it comes to stem cells and nerve regeneration.
The car accident could damage ones spinal cord if it was crushed or hit hard enough. If the spinal cord is severed, the peripheral nerves may detach from the spinal cord. Detachment may lead to pressure applied by other organs or bones. The wreck may cause broken bones that would compress the spi...
Two exercise regimens have been tested and have shown improvements in range of motion (ROM), strength and endurance, and some balance control of elderly adults. One of the tests performed was a constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) and the other was a locomotor treadmill training, both of which were uninteresting and time consuming. Over time these tests will cause the patient to find it hard to stay motivated and will want to discontinue the therapy sessions.
Valdes, E. G.,& Garbuzova-Davis, S. (2013). Brain and Spinal Cord Trauma as a Risk Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Mini-Review. Open Journal of Neuroscience, 3(1). http://rossscience.org/o jns/arti cles/2075-9088 -3-4.pdf
A spinal cord injury, better known in the medical field as an SCI, is when damage occurs to any part of the spinal cord or to the nerves at the end of the cord. SCIs often coincide with permanent deficits in strength, sensation, and function below the level of the injury (Mayo Clinic Staff). Between traumatic and non-traumatic SCIs, there are quite a few ways this type of injury can occur including motor vehicle accidents, cancer, or falling. Along with different causes, a spinal cord injury can be categorized using classification of injury, level of injury, and the extent of severity of the injury, which are all extremely important for making a treatment plan and providing the patient with an idea of what their recovery might look like (Winter & Pattani, 2011).
Regular exercise program is known to be beneficial for people with SCI. Exercise program designed for SCI patients is somewhat similar to the program for stroke survivors. However, it should be noted that the concerns for each condition are different, so there must be focus on specific requirements for the individual. Stroke survivors’ disability depends on the area of the brain that is damaged, whereas the disability of individuals with SCI depends on the damage in their spine. Therefore, detailed assessment of the spinal lesion must be carried out before designing exercise program for a person with SCI (Jacobs & Nash, 2004). An exercise program that combines mobility activities, aerobic resistance, strength, coordination, recreation, and relaxation can improve their functionality and fitness (Durán, Lugo, Ramírez & Lic, 2001). The individual should have 3 sessions per week with the total of 120 minutes (Durán, Lugo, Ramírez & Lic, 2001). The duration of each session can be shorter at first and increased over time to avoid injury and overwhelming stress for the patients. Some very common modalities of exercise for this group include arm crank ergometry and swimming. This is because SCI often causes paralysis and weakness in the lower limbs, which makes sense to place more focus on the upper extremity exercise modes in order to achieve the desired fitness level (Nash,
Wikipedia. 2009 (updated 9 December 2009), ‘Spinal Cord Injury’, Wikipedia . Retrieved 28 December 2009 from
Keep in mind that there is still no single rehabilitation treatment confirmed that betters recovery, every patient is different (Pollock, 2004). Ideas suggests that task-specific training may result in improved and increased results (Pollock, 2004).