Scientist has discovered by a mother giving her blood sample and the father giving a spit sample, an entire genome of their fetus can be born. Clinical test capitalize on this DNA to discern the baby’s sex and determine whether mother and child have incompatible Rh blood groups, which can lead to fatal complications. Every gene and every chromosome known about a baby’s genetic make-up, while still in the u... ... middle of paper ... ... to go through the DNA make-up child. When choosing prenatal DNA sequencing there are many positives that come along with it, such as being able to lessen the amount of genetic diseases within in the child. Although there can be many positives, there are many negatives that fall along with prenatal DNA sequencing, such as whether its right for the parent to alter their child’s genes.
They honestly didn't know if they could bring another child into a world of hurt and certain death. Breakthroughs in genetic technology has brought hope for healthy children to the distraught couple. Through embryo diagnosis, it is very possible for Karen and Roger to have a baby that is free of the horrible disease. What they struggle with now is whether they believe it is ethically correct. In the fast-paced, ever growing world of genetics, we as a responsible society must take time to scrutinize the new technologies from both ethical and scientific standpoints.
For some, the information may be a sigh of relief, for others a tear of terror. The psychological effects following a prenatal test can be devastating, leaving the woman with a decision which will affect the rest of her life. For couples with previous knowledge of genetic disorders in their family and concerned parents, prenatal genetic testing is part of the regular pregnancy checkup. Making an appointment with a genetic counselor may seem strange or even frightening for some, still others view it a very common step being taken by many Americans today. The desire to have a "normal" child is held by every parent and only now are we beginning to have the ability to select for that child.
16) Furrow, Barry, et al. Health Law: Cases, Materials and Problems. St. Paul: West Group, 1997, p.894. 17) Bower, Hilary. “Public Consultation on Human Cloning Launched.” British Medical Journal.
The most common factor is due to genetic mutation, which causes mental retardation, abnormal body buildup and other conditions, which bring a lot of troubles in the future to the child themselves and their parents. Modern technologies and innovations in the medical field had developed a method known as prenatal screening to detect the abnormality before birth and prevent this future tragedy to happen. It is screening for the detection of fetal diseases, usually by ultrasound examination or by testing the amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis (Williams & Wilkins, 2004). It is available to all pregnant women. Others screening techniques may include maternal serum, placental biopsy, and genetic test.
“Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis - PGD.” April 2000. 24 Sept. 2002 . Gert, Bernard. Morality and the New Genetics: A Guide for Students and Health Care Providers. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett P, 1996.
Given advancements in technology and medicine, genetic screening and testing is becoming more commonplace in our society. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) defines genetic screening as “a search in a population for persons possessing certain genotypes that (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease, (2) may lead to disease in their descendants, or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease” (NHGRI, 2005). The term genetic testing is similar, but differs in that it only targets those individuals believed to be at high risk for a genetic disease. For example, testing an asymptomatic person in a family with relatives affected with the condition would constitute genetic testing (NHGRI, 2005). For the purpose of this paper, the two terms will be used interchangeably.
Older pregnant women who usually have more complications during pregnancy benefit from genetic screening. Doctors usually recommend “more invasive procedures” in which actual fetal cells are collected from the womb’s amniotic fluid or placenta . (Golden) Receiving the results from the tests, she can determine whether it is safe for her to continue with the pregnancy, especially since some tests provide accuracy as high as ninety-nine percent. (Golden) Unfortunately, not all test results come out positive. Approximately ninety-five percent of couples who receive “bad” news from genetic scr... ... middle of paper ... ...nsequences, especially because of genetic screening.
The test is most commonly done when the women is between 15 and 18 weeks pregnant. The test is used to determine whether the baby has genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. Amniocentesis has recently caused a great deal of controversy in the news at doctor offices in the United States. After comparing the pros and cons it is eminent that amniocentesis is an important test that should be offered to those pregnant women who desire to have it. Amniocentesis offers many advantages to the expecting mother.