The concept of poverty is complex and has many indicators across different disciplines. The prevalence of poverty is growing and the effects of poverty impacts individuals, families and communities across the lifespan. One area of focus is on poverty in relation to mental illness. The impact of poverty on mental health has been shown to affect those of all ages. Many people are unaware of the widespread poverty and its effects on mental health in the United States and many other countries, therefore it is important to analyze the concept of poverty in mental illness. There are often no or limited resources available to help those affected by poverty and mental illness, and those that provide advanced care need to be knowledgeable of the problems in order to help develop and provide assistance to those in need.
Review of Literature
In the process of researching the concept of poverty and mental illness I found it crossed boundaries into many disciplines. I chose to focus my search to the areas of nursing, psychology, and sociology.
Goldman-Mellor, Saxton, & Catalano (2010) investigate the relationship between poverty and mental health. Reports suggest that economic adversity of individuals and of communities may contribute to the onset of mental disorders. The loss of employment causes not only the loss of income but also the loss of a social network. This loss causes material strain and may increase strain on relationships. Those in a community affected by poverty who continues to be employed may also suffer strain due to decreased wages, decreased job security and increased workload. The loss of community resources may also occur. The stresses brought about by these precursors can result in negati...
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Jo, Y. N. (2013). Psycho-social dimensions of poverty: When poverty becomes shameful.
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Perese, E. F. (2007). Stigma, poverty, and victimization: roadblocks to recovery for individuals with severe mental illness. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association,
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The relationship between mental health and poverty can prove to be complicated at times because of an overwhelmingly large number of outside
Poverty in mental health prevents patients from seeking out medical attention due to lack of insurance. “insurance coverage disparities make mental health care less accessible than other forms of health care” (Safran, 2011). Due to lack of insurance patients are not receiving adequate care, such as being evaluated, receiving the appropriate treatments, and not going to doctor follow up appointments to ensure proper care. Without receiving proper treatment, it can cause the patient condition to get worse and would not have a chance of a successful outcome. Also, poverty can cause additional stress and anxiety making the mental illness progress. “The stresses of living with someone who has a mental health problem may be particularly pronounced for families who live in resource poor areas where treatment options, accurate information, and social support may be limited.” (Bischoff, 2017). Lack of attention is another health disparities, due to lack of attention, there is limited funding sources to help mental health patients. Since there is a lack of funding these individuals are not getting the appropriate help that is needed. As well since mental health lacks attention and funding, there are limited mental health institutions, so people who need to be institutionalized may be required to be relocated to another city/state. We must try our best to provide all resources for our patients and
Studies do show that low income can lead to poor mental health as well. People with low income will typically suffer from stress, depression, low self-esteem or stigma (Sieppert, 2004). Families that live in poverty are often geared away from getting an education, or secure employment (Poverty and Mental Illness, 2007). These families lack the health care that they need, health care does not necessarily need to be when you get injured, but mental health. Although, some may disagree, people with mental illnesses need just as much help. Families in poverty experience economic hardships, these could be things like losing a job, a house, or education (Poverty and Mental Illness, 2007). These are essential needs that everyone needs to be entitled to, to be able to live a healthy life. Losing these kinds of essentials will absolutely cause stress, which can sometime follow up with anxiety and depression (Poverty and Mental Illness, 2007). According to statistic, 1 in 5 people in Ontario will suffer from a mental illness, and 35% of those people are living on social support from the government (Poverty and Mental Illness, 2007). This stress could also come from how expensive basic living conditions are in
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] used the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ definition of mental illness as “health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination thereof) associated with distress and/or impaired functioning” (2011). Our community is exposed to a large number of individuals with mental illness. Among those individuals are the widespread homeless populations. The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development reported “twenty-five percent of the sheltered homeless report a severe mental illness (as cited in Allender, Rector and Warner 2014 p. 907).” This author found the target population to be predominantly Caucasian, Non-Hispanic, single males of thirty-one years of age and older. In reviewing the research, this author found that multiple health disparities happen in conjunction with mental health and homelessness. This includes cardiac and respiratory issues and HIV/AIDs. Without the proper healthcare services, the homeless mental health population remains vulnerable.
As Roy Grant clarifies, “Child poverty increased from 16% in 1979 to 22% in 1983, with an inner-city child poverty rate of 31%. Families with young children headed by a single parent were the most vulnerable;” Grant also explains the effects that these types of conditions have on a child. ”Homelessness is an especially powerful negative life event for a child because it is generally associated with multiple stressors, including loss of property, disruption of school and community relationships, and dramatic changes in family routine.72 Studies by Bassuk and Rubin73 and Bassuk74 in the Boston area showed that half of homeless school-age children met criteria for a diagnosed psychiatric disorder based on screen with a standardized instrument. Children who screened positive for symptoms of depression frequently had symptom severity exceeding that of children treated for depression at community clinics”(2, 4). People often don’t think about the child’s mental conditions when the child is constantly living with the ups and downs of living in poverty and that the severity of it all can affect them for the rest of their
Within the study of mental health, socioeconomic status has been used as a major determinant of mental health. Module 3a, discusses the social determinates of mental health. From the studies conducted, household income levels had an effect on the perceived levels of mental health. The lowest levels of incomes had the highest percentage of mental illness. With mental health, stressors are considered to be the factors that contribute to a person’s negative mental health. These stimuli typically provided feelings of distress, feelings of a person about their affective state, or can result in deviance, the perception of others and are a violation of social norms.
Undisputedly poverty has been one of the major persistent social problems in the United States for hundreds of years. Poverty does not discriminate against Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics, Jews, homosexuals, heterosexuals, age, gender, or persons with disabilities. Poverty can strike any population, community, ethnic group, and family. According to the U.S Census Bureau, 43.6 million people were in poverty in 2009 which was an increase from 2008. (Insert citation for website). There are multiple causes of why a family or individual can fall into poverty, which includes but not limited to, disability, unemployment, age, and recessions, as for which we have seen through the 2008 recession and the Great Depression. Throughout this paper I will address poverty as a social problem and its causes. I will also focus on how children and family households headed by single mothers are effected by poverty, and how Temporary Assistance for Needy Families came about to help children and families in poverty.
Mental health care disparities can be rooted in inequalities in access to good providers, differences in insurance coverage, or discrimination by health professionals in the clinical encounter (McGuire & Miranda, 2008). Surely, those who are affected by these disparities are minorities Blacks and Latinos compare to Whites. Due to higher rates of poverty and poor health among United States minorities compared with whites. Moreover, the fact that poverty and poor health are
You don’t have to come from a poor family or be homeless to suffer from a mental illness. For instance, some very well-known people have suffered from the various disorders. This is to further illustrate, that not only poor people, or people from broken homes suffer from these mental disorders that the disorders don’t care about how much money you make or who your parents are. It also could care less about what race you are or what church you belong too. If you are young or old if you work on wall street or ride on the back of a garbage truck picking up the city’s trash. It can strike anyone so let’s take a look at a few of these people well known
Mental illness related to low socioeconomic status (SES) conditions lead to interference of educational pursuits and finding employment; thus trapping the family in a cycle of poverty. Obstacles in accessing quality mental health car...
Poverty is one of the most disadvantaging features to mental illness. Poverty results from variety of inequalities. For instance, unemployment, lack of access to education and low income contribute to poverty (The human face). Income is a person’s main source for support of basic living needs. Consuming nutritional food and clean water, living in a safe housing, affording weather appropriate clothing and personal hygiene are all tied to a person’s level of income. Therefore, one could argue these factors could be connected with a person’s mental health issues. For example, living in an expensive city like Vancouver, individuals suffer from low minimum wage and the high cost of living which may lead to more stress in their
Unemployment can affect families drastically from suicidal tendencies, marriage breakdowns, alcohol and drug abuse and even family violence (Broman, Hamilton & Hoffman, 1996; House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Workplace Relations, 2000). For many individuals work provides them with a place to social network and it gives them self-esteem and the loss of both when unemployment hits, creates isolation which happens quickly. However, unemployment does not just affect the individual famil...
The effects of poverty can affect a parent’s mental health that can directly impact children. Mental health problems that parents in poverty face can be related to the stress of not having enough money to care for the children. Other mental health problems, like depression, can als...