However, fight or flight is not always executed perfectly post-traumatic stress disorder can develop as a result of improper execution of the fight or flight response (Tull, p. 1, 2014). Post-traumatic stress disorder, abbreviated as PTSD, is a mental illness. Post-traumatic stress disorder was first added to the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychological Association, DSM, in 1980. The knowledge was limited as to what were the causes of this illness. In the third edition of the DSM it was defined to be, “caused by a traumatic event,” (Rothschild, p. 1, 1998).
(2014) What is PTSD?. Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/what-is-ptsd.asp Sharpless, B. A., & Barber, J. P. (2011). A clinician's guide to PTSD treatments for returning veterans. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(1), 8-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022351 Williams, I., & Bernstein, K. (2011) Military Sexual Trauma Among U.S.
Harvard Health Publications. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/what-causes-depression.htm Depression (major depressive disorder). (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/basics/causes/CON-20032977 What Is Depression?