Shakespeare was possibly the first writer to portray women as strong, crafty, and intelligent. However, he has still received criticism from feminists about his representation of women. Some have even accused him of misogyny. There are only two female characters in the play Hamlet - Gertrude, Hamlet's mother and Ophelia, daughter of Polonius. Any debate based upon gender roles must therefore focus upon these two characters.
Shakespeare portrays Gertrude as a woman of power and intelligence - she was Queen for a considerable amount of time - we can safely assume at least 30 years - and she is asked advice on matters by King Claudius - "Do you think 'tis this?" (II.2.152). Gertrude is a woman who married her own brother-in-law; perhaps to remain in her position of power. It is often debated whether or not Gertrude was involved in the killing of King Hamlet - either way, Gertrude seems to have complied fully in her marriage to Claudius - she doesn't seem at all offended by Claudius' presence - perhaps reason to suspect that she was unaware of Claudius' role in Hamlet's death, if she was uninvolved.
The ghost tells Hamlet not to judge his mother, or to seek revenge upon her, telling him "leave her to heaven" (I.5.86). This pours doubt upon Gertrude's 'guilt'. Further, her seeming innocence, when confronted by Hamlet as she exclaims "As kill a king!" (III.4.31) would indicate her lack of guilt in or even knowledge of, the murder of old Hamlet. Hamlet himself is certainly convinced, as he tries to 'win her over', later on in the scene: "Throw away the worser part of it, and live the purer with the other half." (III.4.158-159).
Gertrude's apparent innocence would highligh...
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...rch 1897), 70-76. Rpt. in Women Reading Shakespeare 1660-1900. Ed. Ann Thompson and Sasha Roberts. New York: Manchester University Press, 1997.
Pennington, Michael. "Ophelia: Madness Her Only Safe Haven." Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. of "Hamlet": A User's Guide. New York: Limelight Editions, 1996.
Pitt, Angela. "Women in Shakespeare's Tragedies." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint of Shakespeare's Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981.
Sardone, Frances J.: Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Available: http:www.netaccess.on.ca/~frances/gertrude.htm
Shakespeare, William: Hamlet. Published by Penguin 1996.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html