Some commentators of Spinoza maintain that Spinozistic ideas are judgements. I shall call this view the common interpretation, since it is popular to interpret Spinoza as reacting against Descartes’s theory of ideas and accordingly consider Spinozistic ideas not as Cartesian ideas, but as Cartesian judgements.
...Spinoza insists, it is nonetheless possible that two substances can be distinguished in virtue of them sharing an attribute and yet be distinct in nature by possessing an attribute not shared by the other. So, whereas substance A shares an attribute with substance B - namely, both share attribute C - the former differs in nature from the latter in terms of each one possessing an attribute not contained by the other. If the nature of Substance A is attribute C and attribute D, and if the nature of substance B is C and E, then it appears that the nature of each one, though each shares an attribute in common, is fundamentally distinct. So, it appears that Spinoza’s commitment to the thesis that no two substances share the same nature or attribute stands in error, and thus I conclude under the possibility two substances sharing an attribute while differing in nature.
Husserl dubbed his famous transcendental phenomenology as the “new, twentieth century Cartesianism” and quoted Descartes on the insistence that the only fruitful renaissance is considered as one that reawakens. Husserl discussed Descartes in almost all his published works during his mature period. How can people characterize the Cartesianism that is found on Husserl’s Cartesian meditations? One recent scholar made the argument that Husserl derived one idea from Descartes that can he altered profoundly. The deepest affinity that exists between Husserl and Descartes is their common diagnosis regarding the state of affairs regarding the contemporary sciences that were found in their respective times. Husserl found a rather deep affinity with the optimism and pessimism that were associated with Descartes. He shared the pessimism regarding the then state of science and the optimism of the unlimited prospects of a reformed science and the role philosophy would play in such reforms. In recent philosophy of mind, phenomenology is prized as the basic foundation that philosophy is founded on, as opposed to disciplines such as metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. The methods used in the characterization of this disciplines were debated widely by Husserl as well as his successors, debates that continue to
Rene Descartes, who has been often called the Father of Western Philosophy (Wikipedia Descartes), entered the scene in Europe in the 17th century. Galileo’s imprisonment and the church’s monopoly on knowledge had put a damper on scientific learning throughout Europe. This, coupled with Aristotle’s outdated theories which held much weight in the domain of science and philosophies had spread a growing sense of skepticism throughout the world. Descartes’ Meditations were the first real response to this dangerous approach. He started off by embracing skepticism’s notion that all of his ideas of the world must be shaken and then attempt to build a model from the ground up. Through the series of Meditations he arrives upon a critical point that he says cannot be refuted and begins to model his idea of the world from that point. This point is one of the most the most quoted phrases in philosophy, “Cogito ergo sum”, that is, “I think therefore I am” (Descartes Mediation 2). He states that were...
In conclusion, Spinoza argues that all substances must be infinite by establishing a metaphysical framework that cannot be tested. Due to this, his claims are true in as far as they cannot be proven to be
In his work, Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes writes to rid pre-conceptions, and disprove all belief in thoughts that are not certain, accepting only what can be known for sure. In his Meditation VI: Of the Existence of Material Things, and the Real Distinction between the Mind and Body of Man, he discusses his belief that the mind and body are two separate substances, claiming that the nonmaterial mind and the material body, while being ontologically distinct substances, causally interact; a belief called Cartesian dualism.
Modern day Judaism is split into several different fractions whose looks and values are very different. Though this has become the accepted standard in Judaism, it was not always that way. Freedom of religious thought in Judaism was looked at as an evil, and preaching these ideas could lead to excommunication from the community. This was the fate of one of the most relevant 17th century philosophers in today’s world, Baruch Spinoza. Though it is impossible to say if Spinoza would have been in support of one of the more liberal and free thinking sects of modern Judaism, this paper will argue that Spinoza changed the course of Jewish theology with his preachings and creation of the idea of the necessity of freedom of religious thought with his works the Theological-Political Treatise.
According to Descartes, Mind and Body are the 2 different kinds of substances that prevail not dependent on one another, but are connected to the absolute substance i.e. God. He believed that substances are the foundation for everything in this world. Substances are present naturally and act like a base.
For Spinoza, the freedom of the human will hinges on its ability to act independently of desire and appetite, to control the body with will. Spinoza questions this idea of control by examining the nature of the body, namely if it can be completely understood, and thereby controlled. Sleepwalking is a prime example of an ability held by the body that functions in the absence of the will of the mind, thus Spinoza concludes the nature of the body is yet to be determined. After finding that no one has rightly determined or explained all of the possible qualities of the body, he writes, “this shows well enough that the body itself, simply from the laws of its own nature, can do many things which it mind wonders at.” Continuing with this idea of
Surprisingly dualism has become synonymous with Rene Descartes that often times it is many just referred to by many as Cartesian dualism, as if this was the decisive line of attack to the issue. The theory behind dualism is that the mind and the body, that mind and matter, are two distinct things. Descartes well-thought-out the difficulty of the location of the mind and came to the conclusions that the mind was a completely separate entity from the body. Descartes stated that he is a subject of conscious thought and experience and thus cannot be nothing more than spatially extended matter. The fundamental nature of the human being, or the mind, are unable to be material but are obliged to be no...