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How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of 'Pure Enquiry' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes builds his epistemological system up from his foundations in the way that he does, it is helpful to gain an understanding of the intellectual background of the 17th century that provided the motivation for his work. We can discern three distinct influences on Descartes, three conflicting world-views that fought for prominence in his day. The first was what remained of the mediaeval scholastic philosophy, largely based on Aristotelian science and Christian theology.
While this may be an answer, the Cartesian theory cannot be fully proven, yet it does illustrate Descartes high concept of what is the soul and what is the mind. In conclusion, the initiation in philosophy of methodological scepticism will constitute, after Descartes, becoming the obsessive theme of reflection of modern philosophy. Descartes’ mediations are the ones which expose the results of metaphysics based on principles. For the building of this philosophy those principles must be absolute certain. Descartes realises this and doubts all his previous knowledge, not to reach a sceptical conclusion but to find absolute certain elements beyond doubt, allowing him to find the foundation on which he can build the rest of his thinking.
Since Descartes many philosophers have discussed the problem of interaction between the mind and body. Philosophers have given rise to a variety of different answers to this question all with their own merits and flaws. These answers vary quite a lot. There is the idea of total separation between mind and body, championed by Descartes, which has come to be known as “Cartesian Dualism”. This, of course, gave rise to one of the many major responses to the mind-body problem which is the exact opposite of dualism; monism.
This paper attempts to discuss the main features of existentialist views as well as dissect Sartre's Theory into two parts, analysing its merits and consequent demerit. Existentialist views in my understanding is a difficult concept to define. From various philosophical theories read so far, existentialism focuses more on the existence of the human being in itself rather than the various material and non-material (idealistic) influences that is associated with man. One of the first very popular existentialist - Jean-Paul Sartre in his description referred to it as a fundamental doctrine commonly shared by most philosophers who collectively believe that in the existentialist world, "existence preceded essence". This means that the most important
After exploration through the thought and philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche it can be mesmerizing to grasp a firm hold onto viewpoints in contrast with many philosophers. Much of the content throughout his works can be perceived various ways and he even suggests that one does not have to accept it. The idea of perspectivism is developed by him throughout his works. This philosophical viewpoint makes the statement that all ideas are from different perspectives and that there is no definite truth, but not all perspectives are equal or true. He championed argument and felt that created agon, contest, which motivates and challenges people in the Genealogy of Morality (174-81).
Theory and Methods in Political Science. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. 25. Print. 5: Marsh, David, and Gerry Stoker.
I will first show that the strength of his criticism lies in its all-encompassing penetration of the foundations of modern philosophy, running through both the ontological and epistemological channels. Ontologically, Heidegger presents a critique of subjectivism; epistemologically, he discredits the correspondence conception of truth and its underlying visual metaphor. I will then look at his view of history and the meaning of his concept of "overcoming" in order to show that his aim is not to destroy the tradition, but to provide a wider basis for it by rescuing forgotten elements imbedded in the tradition itself. Finally, I will show that in this process of "overcoming," Heidegger did not really depart from the tradition, but absorbed some of its basic tenets, as his concept of death echoes major elements of Cartesian doubt. 1.