1. Molecular Biology The working of every cell depends on the accuracy of DNA Replication, Transcription and Translation. The three processes occur sequentially to facilitate the flow of genetic information and control the traits of an organism. First, DNA Replication takes place. The double helix DNA splits into two strands, and each separated strand acts as a new strand of DNA with its own complete genome.
Somatic gene therapy is currently being researched more aggressively due to ethical and technical complications with germline gene therapy. Technical Aspects Gene therapy began with the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project has found gene locations for many diseases. Among the diseases that have been found Huntington’s disease, cystic fibrosis, ADA deficiency, and two genes for breast cancer are just a few examples. After a disease-causing gene is found, correcting it is the next logical step.
While there are existing regulation and oversight to promote the quality of laboratories involved in clinical testing, there is a need customise and enhance the regulations specific for clinical genetic testing. SCOPE 4. This paper focuses on genetic testing offered in clinical context, used for diagnosis of diseases, predictive genetic testing often carried out before any clinical signs of the disease or condition appear and the testing of heritable DNA variants that predict the response profile ... ... middle of paper ... .... Getting the Healthcare Family Ready 23. Laboratory personnel should be educated and trained to possess expert knowledge of genetic principles, the technologies employed, the limitations of the tests used, an appropriate understanding of the clinical implication of the tests result and how to communicate this information. The healthcare professionals providing the tests should be trained and have experience in ordering genetic tests and interpreting the results.
(www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/therapy/genetherapy) The possible future uses for gene therapy are seemingly endless, with current research of gene therapy underway on how it can be used in the treatment of cancer, genetically caused blindness, and sickle cell disease. (www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/therapy/gene) What are the concepts and processes involved in Gene Therapy? The general process by which scientists correct these genes are by that the absent or faulty gene is replaced by a working gene, so the body can make the correct enzyme or protein and therefore eliminate the cause of the disease. (www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BA/Gene_Therapy_Overview.php) There are two methods used to insert genetic material into human chromosomes. The first of which, called in vivo technique, a normal gene is inserted into the chromosome to replace the abnormal, disease causing one.
FAQ About Genetic Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://www.genome.gov/19516567 Department of Pediatrics. (2013, January 1). About Carrier Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://pediatrics.med.nyu.edu/genetics/clinical-services/carrier-testing/about-carrier-testing CFTR.
According to an article titled “Medicine Gets Personal” by Marc Wortman, published in Technology Review, this could play a big role of medicines of the future. Eventually, knowledge of one’s personal genome will help one’s doctor decide which medication could be the best for him/her. With this genetic information, the doctor will know whether or not the prescription will have any hazardous side affects. The tiny variations of DNA are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In order to be able to decipher how certain medications will interact with DNA, scientists must first identify as many variations as possible and figure out which ones have a significance in the effects of medicines.
According to Yourgenome.org, Gene therapy is basically when the DNA is introduced into a patient to treat a genetic disease. Precisely, the new DNA contains a functioning gene typically to correct effects of a disease-causing mutation. Typically, there are two types of gene therapy, but they are different depending on the kinds of cells treated. There is somatic gene therapy and germline gene therapy. Additionally, there are also some techniques used to carry out gene therapy.
Genome sequencing not only suggests the most suitable course of treatment but the pr... ... middle of paper ... ... benefit both the medical world and the society in general. Whole genome sequencing is the basis for innovative advances to screening, diagnosis, risk expectation, and analytical programs in medical practice (Caulfield et al., 2013). Conclusion Overall, I believe that sequencing individual genomes should become a routine part of medical care because genome sequencing can benefit medical practice immensely. With whole genome sequencing, individualized medicine will come into effect and individuals will receive a better diagnosis and an effective treatment when required. Although there is still ambiguity regarding whether genome sequencing can enhance an individual’s health, the procedure has been able to identify unusual and common variants that give rise to future diseases.
An efficient mechanism promising vast improvements to healthcare is the development of gene manipulation. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome by using biotechnologies. The process begins with the molecular cloning of genetic materials or by synthesizing the DNA. The finished product is a new DNA sequence that then can be inserted into a host organism. Complete manipulation allows for the access to the gene.
Would you consider altering your DNA if it could save your life? Scientist have been working on gene therapy since the 1970's, this biotechnological form of medicine is the attempt to medically modify cells to help eliminate or prevent diseases by correcting defective genes. Imagine the possibilities of having your DNA tested for heritable diseases and being able to eliminate such diseases from your future. From 1990-2003 the Department of Energy coordinated a project called the Human Genome Project, in which it asked, "Why screen for individuals at increased risk for genetic diseases who do not exhibit symptoms? On the pro or benefit side, we want to reduce morbidity and mortality.