Pap Smear Testing

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This mini case refers to a 32-year-old female patient who has an abnormal Pap smear with a grade CIN 2, High-grade SIL by Bethesda System criteria. Educating this patient regarding Pap smear testing would be an initial step. The Papanicolaous test or a “Pap smear” is a screening tool used to detect the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells in the cervical canal. CIN II classified as moderated dysplasia, which warrants that she may be likely to develop cancerous cells. These cells are usually pre-cancerous and are more likely to lead to cervical cancer. Dysplasia means disordered growth or development of the cells, or may grow irregularly. Although initially a reversible cell change, untreated dysplasia can develop into carcinoma (Grossman, 2013). A high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear does not indicate cancer. It usually indicates what is called moderate or severe dysplasia. However, since the Pap smear is a screening test, the actual changes in the cervix can be worse and actually be an invasive cervical cancer. This would be very uncommon and the chance of a Pap smear showing HGSIL and of there being an invasive cancer of the cervix already present would be less than 1%. In fact, only about 1.5% of women with an HGSIL Pap smear will progress to having invasive cancer of the cervix within the next 24 months. The doctor will probably perform a colposcopy to determine how at risk the patient is for cancer ( Virus called human papilloma [pap-ah-LO-mah] virus or HPV often causes changes in the cervix. HPV can lead to cervical cancer (mayoclinic, 2012). In general, doctors recommend beginning Pap smear tests at the age of 21 and then every two or three years. After age 30, Pap smears ar... ... middle of paper ... ... by various laboratory tests. Oral contraceptives (OCP) are first-line treatment for hirsutism, particularly in those women desiring contraception. Estrogen/progesterone combinations act by- reducing gonadotropin secretion and thereby reducing ovarian androgen production (ncbi.nlm.nih, 2010). Works Cited Grossman, S. (2013). Porth's Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States [VitalSouce bookshelf version]. Retrieved from Indian J Dermatol. 2010 Jan-Mar; 55(1): 3–7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.60342 Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jan-Feb; 17(1): 138–145. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.107858
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